Name of Work: Anwār ul Bashārah fi Masā’il il Ḥajj wa’z Ziyārah (Luminous Glad Tidings Concerning the Issues of Ḥajj and Visiting [the Holy Messenger ﷺ])
Author: Aala Hazrat Imam Ahmad Raza Khan
Translator: Muhammad Afthab Cassim al-Qaadiri
الحمد لله رب العالمين و الصلاة و السلام على نبينا محمد و على آله و اصحابه اجمعين
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Below we have presented a few words of guidance to the Ḥujjāj (pilgrims to the Holy Sanctuaries). Most of the information presented below has been extracted from the distinguished book ‘Jawāhirul Bayān Sharīf’ by Mawlana Muhammad Naqi Ali Khan Qādiri Barkāti رحمه الله تعالى. On the 3rd of Shawwal 1329 Hijri Sayyid Muhammad Ahsan Sahib Barelvi mentioned to this humble servant, Ahmed Raza Qādiri عفر اله, that he intended to journey for Ḥajj on the 10th of Shawwāl. He further mentioned that many people are going for Ḥajj, and he requested that the laws and etiquettes pertaining to Ḥajj should be written and published. At the command of the respected Sayyid Sahib, I have very quickly written these few lines. I am hopeful that Allah Almighty will accept this humble effort through the blessings of the Sadāt-e-Kirām (Sayyids, lineal descendants of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ), and afford the Muslims the opportunity to benefit from this. Āmīn
Section One:The Etiquettes of Travelling & an Introduction to Ḥajj
1. If you owe someone (money etc.) or if you have in your possession any of their possessions which have been entrusted to you, be sure to return them. If you have unjustly taken any wealth (etc.) belonging to someone else, then return it to them or have it pardoned. If (the person) cannot be located, then give the same amount to a poor person.
2. Be sure to make up all ritual prayer (Ṣalāh), fasts, alms (Zakāt) and any other obligatory worship, and repent sincerely for omitting them.
3. Acquire permission from those without whose permission to travel is Makrūh (disapproved), such as one’s mother, father, and husban If you are in debt to someone and you are not currently able to pay him, then attain his permission as well. However, even if permission is not granted, one is still allowed to make Ḥajj; it will not hinder one from performing Ḥajj if someone refuses him permission. One should try to the best of one’s ability to attain permission, but if it is not attained, one should still go ahead and perform the Ḥajj.
4. The intention for this journey should be solely for the sake and Pleasure of Allah and His Messenger ﷺ.
5. If a woman’s husband or another reliable adult who is maḥram (Legal Shar`i Guardian), with whom Nikāḥ is forbidden forever, is not present, then it is ḥarām for her to make the journey. If she still goes for Ḥajj then (the obligation) of Ḥajj will be completed, but sin will be recorded for every step she has taken.
6. Provisions for Ḥajj should be made from ḥalāl wealth; if not, there is no hope of the Ḥajj being accepted, even though the obligation of Ḥajj will be completed.
7. You should take with you extra provisions so that you can assist friends and to distribute amongst the poor and needy. This is a sign of Ḥajj-e-Mabrūr (An accepted Ḥajj).
8. Carry a basic book on Fiqh which will suffice in regards to ones nee If this is not available, one should go in the company of a scholar. If even this is not possible, then at least carry this booklet with you.
9. Keep a mirror, some surmah/kuḥl (collyrium), a comb, and a miswāk (tooth-stick) with you, as to keep these items on a journey is Sunnah.
10. Do not travel alone, as this is disliked. Your traveling companion should be a religious (pious) person. However, it is better to travel alone than to travel in the company of an irreligious person.
11. It has been mentioned in Ḥadīth that if three people go on a journey, one from amongst them should be appointed as a leader [Ref. Mishkāt]. By doing this, everything will be done systematically. The person appointed as the leader should be of good character, able, and Religious (pious). He should give preference to the comfort of his companions over his own comfort.
12. When departing on your journey, meet with family and friends and request them to forgive your shortcomings. It is necessary for them to forgive you with their hearts. It is mentioned in Ḥadīth that it is compulsory to forgive and accept the apology of a Muslim brother who asks for forgiveness. If one does not forgive him, he will not be permitted to go near Ḥawḍ e Kawthar (The Heavenly Pool of the hereafter).
13. When departing, take the du`ās of all those around you, as you will attain blessing by doing this
14. When departing, entrust your dīn, life, children, wealth, and health to Allah Almighty. In other words, leave them totally in the care of Allah.
15. Before departing, wear the clothing which you intend to use on this journey. Thereafter perform 4 cycles of nafl ṣalāh in your home before leaving. Recite Sūrah Fātiḥa and Sūrah Ikhlāṣ (Alḥamdu and Qul Huwallah) in each cycle. Those cycles will protect your family and belongings until your return.
16. Always try to travel on a Thursday, Saturday or a Monday, and it is more virtuous to travel in the morning. For those upon whom there is Ṣalāt-ul-Jumu`a, it is not preferable for them to travel on a Friday before Ṣalāt-ul-Jumu`a.
17. When leaving your home first read:
بِسْمِ اللهِ وَ آمَنْتُ بِاللهِ و تَوِكلتُ على الله و لا حول و لا قوة إلا بالله اللهم إنا نعوذبك من أن نَزل أو نَضِل أو نُضِل أو نَظلِم أو نُظلَم أو نَجهل أو يَجهِل علينا أحد
Bismillāhi Wa Āmantu Billāhi Wa Tawakkaltu `alal’lāhi Wa La Ḥawla Wa La Quwwata illa Billāhi. Allahumma Innā Na`ūdhubika min An Nazilla Aw Naḍilla Aw Nuḍalla Aw Naẓlima Aw Nuẓlama Aw Najhala Aw Yajhila `Alayna Ahad
‘Allah’s Name (we) begin with, and with Allah’s Help, and I have put my complete trust in Allah, Neither is there any real might, nor any power, except With Allah’s Divine Guidance, O Allah! We seek refuge in You, from committing errors by ourselves, or from being caused to err by others, or from going astray by ourselves, or from being led astray by others, or from oppressing or from being oppressed, or from being ignorant, or from others being ignorant to over us.’
Also recite Durūd Sharīf in Abundance
18. After departing from everyone, finally depart from your local Masjid, and if time permits, then perform 2
Cycles of Nafl prayer there.
19. When finally departing, read:
اللهم إنا نعوذبك من وعشاء السفر و كابة المنقلب و سوء المنظر في المال و الاهل و الولد
Allahuma Innā Na`ūdhubika miw Wa`shā‘is Safari Wa Kābatil Munqalabi Wa Sū‘il Manẓari Fi’l Māli wal Ahli wal Waladi
O Allah! Verily we seek refuge in You from the difficulties of (this) journey, and from the grief of returning, and from finding our wealth and families and children in a poor condition (on return).
By reciting this, your relatives, children, friends and belongings will be safe until your return
20. At this time also recite from Sūrah Qul Yā Ayyuhal Kāfirūn up to Sūrah Nās, (i.e. 5 Sūrahs) excluding Sūrah Tabbat Yadā (i.e. Sūrah Lahab). Recite Bismillah before each Sūrah, and finally end by reciting one Bismillah Sharīf. Insha Allah the entire journey will go smoothly.
21. Also at this time recite:
إن الذي فرض عليك القران لرادك الى المعاد
Innal ladhī faraḍa `alaykal Qur’āna larād‘duka ila’l Ma`ād
‘Indeed, He who has made the Qur’an Farḍ upon you will surely bring you back to the place of Return’
This should be recited once. The reciter will return home safely
22. When boarding a train or other mode of transport; say Bismillāh; Allāhu Akbar and Subḥān’Allāh, three times each. Thereafter say; Lā ilāha illallāh once. After this, say;
سبحان الذي سخر لنا هذا و ما كنا له مقرنين و إنا إلى ربنا لمنقلبون
Subḥānal ladhī Sakh’khara lanā hādha wa mā kun’nā lahū
Muqrinīn. Wa Innā ilā Rabbinā Lamunqalibūn
‘Glory be to Him, who has given this in our control, and we did not possess the strength for this, and undoubtedly, we are surely to return towards our Lord’
The reciter will be protected from all calamities and dangers therein
23. When ascending any height (i.e. climbing), say Allāhu Akbar and when descending say, Subḥān’Allāh.
24. When disembarking at any stop or station (airport etc), read:
أعوذ بكلمات الله التامات كلها من شر ما خلق
A`ūdhu bi Kalimātil’lāhit Tām’māti Kulliha min Sharri Ma Khalaq
‘I seek refuge in Allah’s Perfect Word from the mischief (evil) of all His creatures’
This will serve as a protection against any misfortune.
25. When you are able to see that town or city wherein you are about to stopover or visit, recite:
اللهم إنا نسألك خير هذه القرية و خير اهلها و خير ما فيها و نعوذبك من شر هذه القرية و شر هذا اهلها و شر ما فيها
Allāhumma innā Nas’aluka Khayra Hādhihil Qaryati wa Khayra Ahliha Wa Khayra Ma fīhā; Wa Na`ūdhubika min Sharri Hādhihil Qaryati Wa Sharri Ahliha Wa Sharri ma fīhā
‘O Allah! We ask of You, the goodness of this town (village), and the goodness of the people of this town, and the goodness of whatever is in this town; And we seek refuge in You, from the evil of this town, and from the evil of the people of this town, and from the evil which is in it.’
This will serve as protection against all evil.
26. When visiting any city, sit with respect before the Sunni `Ulamā and true Faqīrs of that city. Visit the Mazārs there, and do not waste any time walking around aimlessly.
27. When visiting any scholar there, do not call him out of his home, but wait for him to come out (of his home). Do not speak without reason in his presence. Do not ask any question without permission. If you feel that one of his actions seems not to be in accordance with the Shariat, then do not object, but rather think positively in your heart. This is applicable when visiting a Sunni scholar. This does not apply to a scholar who is misled and a deviant. You should even flee from the shadow of such people.
28. Provide tranquility to the heart through the remembrance of Allah, for an Angel will be with yo Do not pass time singing songs and saying poetry which is baseless, for then shayṭān will be with you. Travel more at night, since the journey is covered faster.
29. When disembarking anywhere, always disembark away from the road, with caution, so as to avoid any harm from snakes and other dangerous creatures which pass there.
30. Urinating on a pathway or on a road is an accursed act.
31. Do not disembark separately (i.e. individually) at your destination. Try to disembark together (i.e. in a group).
32. On every journey, more significantly during Ḥajj, do not be heedless in regards to making du`ā for your elders and friends, since the du`ā of a Musāfir (traveler) is accepted
33. When journeying by sea, one should read:
بسم الله مجريها و مرسها إن ربي لغفور رحيم
و ما قدروا الله حق قدره و الارض جميعا قبضته يوم القيامة و السموت مطويات بيمينه سبحانه و تعالى عما يشركون
Bismillāhi Majrayhā Wa Mursāhā Inna Rabbī la Ghafūrur Raḥīm. Wa Ma Qadarullāha Haqqa Qadrihī Wal Arḍa Jamī`an Qabḍatuhu Yawmal Qiyāmati Was Samāwāti Maṭwiyyātun Biyamīnihi Subḥānahu wa ta`āla `Ammā Yushrikūn.
‘With Allah’s Name is the Sailing and anchoring (of this vessel), Verily my Lord is indeed Most Forgiving Most Merciful.’
‘And they (the unbelievers) did not recognize the Sovereignty of Allah as is His Divine Right, whereas on the Day of Qiyāmat, the entire earth will be worth nothing by Him, and all the skies will be rolled up by His Divine Power; Pure and Supreme is He, from all partners which they attribute to Him.’
The reciter will be protected from drowning
When faced with any difficulty or unforeseen situation wherein you require assistance, say the following thrice:
يا عباد اللهِ اعينوني
Ya `Ibād’Allahi A`īnūnī
O Allah‘s servants, assist me!
Inshā’ Allāh one will receive assistance from the unseen. This is the directive of a Ḥadīth
34. Yā Ṣamadu should be read 134 times dail One who reads this will be protected from hunger and thirst.
35. If one fears being harmed by enemies or looters, one should recite Sūrah Quraysh “li’ īlāf” The reciter will be protected from all calamities.
36. Always recite Āyatul Kursi once before sleeping. This protects one from shayṭan and thieves.
37. If you lose something (on your journey), read:
يا جامع الناس ليوم لا ريب فيه إن الله لا يخلف الميعاد اِجْمَعْ بيني و بين ضالتي
Yā Jāmi`an Nāsi li Yawmil lā Rayba Fīhi. Innal lāha lā
Yukhliful mī`ād. Ijma’ Bayni wa Bayna Ḍāllati
‘O You Who will gather the entire mankind for the day in which there is no doubt! Undoubtedly Allah does not change His Promise. Unite me with what I have lost’
Inshā’ Allāh the lost item will be found
38. When hiring a camel et to travel on, show the owner your possessions before loading them. Do not load more than the prescribed limit without his permission. (This is when using such mode of transport like it was in the early days).
39. Be kind to the animals. Do not work them more than their ability. Do not strike the animal without reason and do not strike it on its face, and try not to sleep on it. The reason for this is that when sleeping, the weight is doubled. When halting to make conversation with anyone, dismount the animal.
40. To dismount and go on foot in the morning and afternoon for a short while is good and beneficial for one’s Dīn and Dunya.
41. Be gentle (i.e. pleasant) to the Bedouins and all Arabs. If they are harsh, oblige with respect. Intercession has been promised for this. This especially refers to the Ahle Ḥaramayn and Ahle Medina. Do not object to the actions of the Ahle `Arab. Do not keep any ill-feeling in the heart in regards to them. This will be beneficial to one in both worlds.
42. The camel bearers (transporters) should not be treated like the (taxi drivers) etc. in your own country. Treat them as your elders and do not be miserly with them in regards to food etc., as this upsets them. The slightest gesture of goodness pleases them immensely. They can be of more help than one would think.
43. When journeying to Medina Ṭayyibah, due to the caravan not stopping, one is compelled to sometimes combine Ẓuhr and `Aṣr Ṣalāh. When doing this, it is necessary before completing the Farḍ of Ẓuhr, to make intention that ‘I will read my `Aṣr Ṣalāh immediately after the Ẓuhr’. `Aṣr should thus be read immediately after the Farḍ of Ẓuh Actually, even the Sunnas of Ẓuhr should not be read between both (the Ṣalāhs). Similarly, the combining of Maghrib and `Ishā’ with the same conditions is also permissible. If one is faced with a situation whereby he needs to read `Aṣr in the time of Ẓuhr, or Maghrib in the time of `Isha then the condition is only this, that the Nīyyat must be made before the time of Ẓuhr ends, or the time of Maghrib ends, and one must make intention that ‘I am combining it (Ẓuhr) with `Aṣr, and (Maghrib) with `Ishā’.
44. On one’s return journey, one may also use the same method which has been explained above.
45. Always inform those at home of your arrival in advance. Never return home without informing your family, especially at night.
46. On returning, first go to your local Masjid and perform 2 Rak`ats of Nafl Ṣalāh.
47. Read another 2 Rak`ats of Nafl at home and meet with everybody in a pleasant and loving manner.
48. Be sure to at least bring some gifts for your friends, and what better gift can a Ḥāji bring than the Tabarrukāt of the Ḥaramayn Sharīfayn? Another gift is du`ā, which you should make for all well-wishers and friends before entering your home, as the du`ā at this time is accepted
Section 2: The Laws of Iḥrām & Entrance into Ḥaram e Makkah
1. The Mīqāt (The Mīqāt is an appointed place from where Iḥrām is tied before entering the boundaries of the Holy City. It must be noted that there are numerous Mīqāt, depending on where you are journeying from. The Mīqāt being explained above is in regards to those travelling by sea from India. Ask your local scholar or reliable Hajj guide regarding the Mīqāt when traveling from your country.) for those journeying from India is the area of the ‘Valley of Yalamlam’ (The Valley of Yalamlam is a city in the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia. It is situated around 100 km South West of Mecca). This place is found when travelling by sea, as you come out of Kamrān. When 2 or 3 miles are remaining to enter Jeddah, the ship’s crew announce its arrival. You should thus have your Iḥrām ready before reaching (the Mīqāt).
2. When you are close to the Mīqāt, bathe thoroughly (i.e. make Ghusl) and perform Wuḍū. If bathing is not possible, then perform only Wuḍū before the Mīqāt.
3. If the men desire, they may remove their hair as this will avoid taking care of it whilst in Iḥrām If it is not removed, then it should be well oiled with fragrant oil, and then neatly combed (before wearing the Iḥrām).
4. Trim the nails and neaten the face hairline and trim (the moustache). Underarm hair and pubic hair should be remove
5. Use fragrance (`Ittar) as it is Sunnah.
6. Men should remove sewn clothing, and cover with only one sheet, either new or washed. Also tie a Tahband (waist cloth) which is similar. It is preferable for the Ihrām to be from white fabric.
7. On reaching there (i.e. the Mīqāt), perform 2 Rak`ats of Ṣalāh with the Nīyyah (intention) of Ihrām. Recite Sūrah Kāfirūn (i.e. Qul Yā Ayyuhal Kāfirūn till end) after Sūrah Fātiḥa in the first Rak`at, and in the second Rak`at recite Sūrah Ikhlāṣ (i.e. Qul Huw’Allah)
8.1. There are 3 types of Ḥajj. The first type is to simply perform Ḥajj only. This is known as Ifrād. In this type, after Salām one should say,
اللهم إني اريد الحج فيسره لي و تقبل مني نويت الحج مخلصا لله تعالى
Allahumma Innī Urīdul Ḥajjah Fayassirhu lī Wa
Taqabbalhu minnī. Nawaytul Ḥajja Mukhliṣan lillāhi Ta`āla
‘O Allah! I am intending Ḥajj, so make it easy upon me, and accept it from me. I have made the intention of Ḥajj, solely for (the pleasure of) Allah.’
8.2. The second type is to simply make Nīyyah of `Umrah from the Mīqāt and tie Iḥrām for Ḥajj in Makkatul Mu`aẓẓamah. This type is known as Tamuttu` (One performing Tamut’tu is called a ‘Mutamatti`’). In this, after the salām, one should say,
اللهم إني العمرة فيسرها لي و تقبلها مني نويت العمرة مخلصا لله تعالى
Allahumma Innī Urīdul `Umrata Fayassirhā lī Wa Taqabbalhā Minnī, Nawaytul `Umrata Mukhliṣan lillāhi Ta`āla
‘O Allah! I am intending Umrah, so make it easy upon me, and accept it from me. I have made the intention of Umrah, solely for (the pleasure of) Allah.’
8.3. The third type is to make Nīyyah for both Ḥajj and `Umrah from here (i.e. the Mīqāt) and this is the most excellent type and is known as Qirān (One performing Qirān is called a ‘Qārin’). In this, after Salām, one should say
اللهم إني اريد الحج و العمرة فيسرهما لي و تقبلهما مني نويت الحج و العمرة لله تعالى
Allahumma innī Urīdul Ḥajjah wal `Umrata Fa yassir humā lī Wa Taqabbal humā minnī Nawaytul Ḥajja wal `Umrata lillāhi ta`āla
‘O Allah! I am intending for Ḥajj and `Umrah, so make them easy upon me, and accept them from me. I have made the intention of Ḥajj and `Umrah, solely for (the pleasure of) Allah.’
In all 3 types, after Nīyyah Labbayk should be proclaimed aloud. The Labbayk (or Talbīyyah) is as follows:
لبيك اللهم لبيك لبيك لا شريك لك لبيك إن الحمد و النعمة لك و الملك لا شريك لك
Labbayk Allahumma Labbayk! Labbayka Lā Sharīka laka Labbayk! Innal Ḥamda Wan Ni`mata laka Wal Mulk. Lā Sharīka Laka
I am present here O Allah! I am present here! I am present here (before You), You have no partner. I am present here! Undoubtedly, All Praise and magnanimity and Sovereignty are for You Alone. For You there is no partner.
9. Ḥarām (Forbidden) Actions in Iḥrām
All which was discussed above was in regards to the Iḥrām. The moment one is in the state of Iḥrām, all the following are regarded as being Ḥarām (Forbidden):
(9.1). Sexual intimacy
(9.2). to kiss (in the state of arousal)
(9.3). to rub against one another (in arousal) (9.4). to embrace (in the state of arousal) (9.5). to look at her private parts (in arousal)
(9.6). to speak of these lustful things in presence of women
(9.7). to be obscene. This was always Ḥarām and is now Ḥarām at a greater level
(9.8). to argue and fight with someone over worldly issues
(9.9). Hunting animals in the wild
(9.10). to encourage someone to hunt an animal by pointing in its direction
(9.11). to provide a knife, gun or any other weapon to kill it
(9.12). to use any device to kill it
(9.13). to even hand over a knife to make the hunted animal dhibāḥ (slaughtered)
(9.14). to break the eggs of a bird
(9.15). to pluck its feathers (9.16). to break its leg or wings (9.17). to milk an animal
(9.18). to cook its meat or eggs
(9.19). to roast (i.e. cook) the animal
(9.20). to sell the hunted animal
(9.21). to purchase it
(9.22). to eat it
(9.23). to clip your nails
(9.24). to separate hair from anywhere on the body
(9.25). to cover the head or face with any cloth etc.
(9.26). to keep bedding (linen) or a bundle of clothing etc. (belongings) on the head
(9.27). to tie a turban
(9.28). to wear a veil or gloves
(9.29). to wear socks etc. that cover the joint of the shin and foot.
(9.30). to wear sewn clothing
(9.31). to apply fragrance to the hair, body or clothing
(9.32). to wear fabric from any type of fragrance (i.e. that which has been dyed with fragrant colored dye), on condition that the fragrance is still evident.
(9.33). to eat (or chew) directly something which is purely fragrant, such as musk, amber, saffron, nutmeg, cloves, cardamom, cinnamon, dry ginger, etc. (i.e. to eat these by themselves.
(9.34). to tie such a fragrance in the corner of the sheet (cloth) which is still giving of a scent, such as musk, amber, or saffron etc.
(9.35). to wash the hair or beard with Khitmi (marshmallow fiber used as medicine) or some other fragrant solution which will kill lice
(9.36). to use dye from woad or Mehndi (henna) (9.37). to gather the hair together with gum etc.
(9.38). to use sesame or olive oil on the body and hair even though it has no fragrance
(9.39). to remove another person’s hair even if he is not in Iḥrām
(9.40). to kill or throw lice, or to direct someone else to do so
(9.39). to wash clothing or leave it out in the sun with the intention of killing the lice
(9.40). to apply any medication etc. to the hair in order to kill lice. In other words, to attempt anything to kill even a single louse.
Note: In the actual text Sayyidi Aala Hazrat ؓ mentioned 53 points above, but since we have combined some of them, the number is reduced, but all have been mentioned within the above.
10. Makrūh (Defective/Disapproved) Actions in Iḥrām
(10.1). to remove any dirt or grime from the body
(10.2). to wash the body with soap or any unscented items.
(10.3). to comb the hair
(10.4). to scratch the head in such a manner that the hair breaks or lice falls off the head
(10.5). to throw anything over the shoulders, like a kurta or long coat etc. whereby it is draped like it is being worn
(10.6). to wear or cover oneself with clothing which has been effected by fragrance of incense, which you have just burnt
(10.7). To intentionally smell (or inhale) any fragrant item, even though it may be a fragrant fruit or leaf such as lime, orange or mint, or any perfumed essence etc.
(10.9). to tie a bandage over the head or face
(10.10). to enter the Ka`ba in Makkah Mu`aẓẓamah in such a way, that the face and the head is touched by the Sacred Ghilāf (covering) of the Ka`ba.
(10.11). to cover the nose or any part of the face with a cloth etc.
(10.12). to eat or drink anything with strong fragrance which has neither been cooked nor diminished
(10.13). to wear un-sewn clothing that has been darned or patched etc. (which is similar to sewing)
(10.14). to sleep on a pillow by pressing the face against the pillow (i.e. sleeping on the stomach)
(10.15). to handle strong fragrant perfume with the hand. This is in the case where it does not come onto the hand. Otherwise, it will be regarded as Ḥarām (to do so in Iḥrām)
(10.16). to fasten a Ta`wīdh on the arm or around the neck, which is wrapped in a cloth, even though it is not sewn
(10.17). to tie bandages on the body without any valid reason
(10.18). to adorn and beautify one’s self
(10.19). to cover oneself with a shawl and tie a knot in its corners
(10.20). to tie a Tahband (waist-cloth) and make it tighter with a waist-string (belt etc.)
11. Permissible Actions in Iḥrām
(11.1). to fold and drape a Jubba or Kurta etc. on top, in a manner whereby that the face and head is not covered (i.e. it is not worn as normal dress)
(11.2). to tie the above mentioned and a pant etc. in the form of a Tahband (i.e. in cold weather etc.)
(11.3). to use a pouch or belt (for keeping money etc.)
(11.4). to bathe without removing any dirt and grime
(11.5). to sit in the shade of anything
(11.6). to use an Umbrella
(11.7). to wear a ring (which is permissible – gold is ḥarām for men)
(11.8). to apply Surmah/Kuḥl which is not fragrant
(11.9). to do cupping without removing hair (In other words if one does cupping, the hair in that area cannot be removed for cupping)
(11.10) to have scarification
(11.11). to remove hair that comes into the eyes
(11.12). to scratch the head and body in a manner whereby neither any hair breaks nor any lice falls off
(11.13). to leave on perfume that was applied before tying Iḥrām
(11.14). slaughter (dhibāḥ) of livestock such as camels, cows, goats, and chickens etc.
(11.15). to cook its meat, to eat it, to milk it, to break its eggs, to cook and to eat it etc.
(11.16). to catch fish for the purpose of eating (and not sport)
(11.17). To kill any sea creature merely for fun and sport, just as is commonly done nowadays, and not for medicinal use or for eating purposes, is Ḥarām at all times, and during Iḥrām it is Ḥarām to a greater extent. This applies to hunting land creatures for the sake of sport as well.
(11.18). to bandage any wound on the body, with the exception of a wound on the head and face
(11.19). to keep a pillow under the head or cheek
(11.20). to keep yours or any other persons hand on your head and nose
(11.21). to cover the ears with a cloth
(11.22). to allow a cloth to fall over the beard, below the chin
(11.23). to carry sacks or bags etc. on the head
(11.24). To eat that food in which musk was put in during cooking, even if it gives off any fragrance; or to eat that food into which some fragrant ingredient which does not give off a scent was put in before it was cooked
(11.25). Ghee, fat, mustard oil, coconut oil, almond oil, calabash oil or lettuce oil which has no foul odor can be used on the body and hair
(11.26). to wear clothing dyed with fragrant dye, if the scent has faded away. However, safflower red is totally prohibited for males on any occasion.
(11.27). to fight and argue for the sake of Religion, which according to need is sometimes even (Wājib) compulsory and sometimes (Farḍ) obligatory
(11.28). to wear shoes that do not hide the joint of the foot
(11.29) to fold a Ta`wīdh in an un-sewn cloth and hang it on the neck
(11.30) to look in a mirror
(11.31). To touch such a fragrance which at present has no scent evident, such as Incense, Lobān, sandal, etc.; and to tie it in the corner of the Iḥrām is also allowed.
(11.32) to make Nikāḥ
12. The ruling in regards to men and women is the same in all the above mentioned laws. However, there are certain actions which are only permissible for women. They are:
12.1. To cover the head, which is Farḍ in Ṣalāh and in the presence of a non-Maḥram, so to carry bedding or luggage on the head is better.
12.2. To gather the hair firmly with gum
12.3. To fasten a ta`wīdh and strap it on the neck or arm even if it is sewn.
12.4. To enter the Ghilāf-e-Ka`ba in a manner whereby it falls over the head and not on the face.
12.5. To wear socks, gloves and sewn clothing
12.6. Women should not say Labbayk so loudly that it is heard by a Non-Maḥram. However, everyone should read audibly enough so that one is able to hear one’s own voice.
Note: It is even Ḥarām for a woman to cover her face in Iḥrām. She should hide her face with a fan etc. in front of a non-Maḥram man.
13. If those factors which are not permitted in Iḥrām occur by error or forgetfully, then it is not regarded as a sin. However, one will be liable to pay the penalty for committing this act. This must be paid, whether it has occurred intentionally, unintentionally, under duress, or whilst asleep
14. From the time of wearing the Iḥrām right up to the time of Rami Jamrah (which will be explained later on), it is better to recite the Labbayk as often as possible, especially when climbing and descending mountains or hills, when meeting with other groups, during the morning and the evening, in the later parts of the night, and after all five Ṣalāh Men should read Labbayk aloud, but it should not be so loud that it causes discomfort to you or to others.
15. When close to the Ḥaram (Mecca), bow the head and lower your gaze in humility, ashamed of your sins. Then, with complete devotion and sincerity, enter the Ka`ba reciting the Labbayk and making du`ā abundantly. It is more virtuous if you are barefoot. It is better to enter the Ḥaram during the day, after taking a bath.
16. To break branches, uproot trees, cut fresh grass, kill animals and birds, or to cause any discomfort to them within the boundaries of the Ḥaram is Ḥarām. The ruling is that if it is a hot day and there is only one tree in that area, and a deer etc. is seated under that tree, which is giving shade to it, one is not permitted to chase it away so that you may sit in its shade. If a person had with him any wild animal, which he brought with him from outside the boundaries of the Ḥaram, then it is Farḍ for him to now release it immediately, since the animal is now in the sanctified Ḥaram and therefore belongs there. In Mecca Mu`aẓẓamah there are many wild pigeons. Beware! Never chase them away, never frighten them or cause any harm to them. In Mecca some people from other places who are now residing there do not bother about the pigeons (and harm them). Do not follow this practice. More importantly, do not criticize these people as well, because if the respect for the animals there is so great, then what can be said regarding the respect of Muslim human beings?
17. On seeing the Holy city of Almighty Allah, pause and make du`ā and recite Durūd Sharif in abundance. It is more virtuous to take a bath and wash before entering. Also offer Fātiḥa for those resting in Jannat-ul-Ma`lā (The Blessed Cemetery of Mecca).
18. On reaching the area from where the Holy Ka`ba is clearly visible, Allāhu Akbar! This is a time of great acceptance and acknowledgement. Make du`ā with a true and sincere heart for the well-being and forgiveness of all your relatives, elders, family, and friends. This humble servant (Aala Hazrat) is quoting below one such du`ā.
Durūd should be read in abundance and this du`ā thrice:
اللهم هذا بيتك و انا عبدك أسألك العفوة و العفية في الدين و الدنيا و الآخرة لي و لوالي و للمؤمنين و المؤمنات و لعبدك أحمد رضا ابن نقي علي اللهم اغفرهما و ارحمهما و انصره نصرا عزيزا
Allāhumma Hādha Baytuka wa Ana `Abduka As’alukal `Afwa wal `Āafiyata fid Dīni Wad Duniya Wal Ākhirati lī, Wa li wālidayya Wa lil Mu’minīna Wal Mu’mināti Wa Li `Abdika Ahmad Raza ibni Naqi Ali. Allahummagh firhuma Warhamhuma Wansurhu Nasran `Azīza
‘O Allah! This is Your House and I am Your servant. I ask of You, forgiveness, and goodness in Dīn, in worldly affairs, and in the hereafter for me, and for my parents, and for all the believing men and the believing women, and for your humble servant Ahmed Raza, the son of Naqi Ali. O Allah! Forgive them and have Mercy on them, and assist him with mighty assistance’
After this, again recite Durūd Sharīf
19. In this manner, continue making the Zikr of Almighty Allah and His Rasūl ﷺ and whilst making Dua for the success and salvation of the Muslims, proceed towards
‘Bābus Salām’. Kiss this blessed and sacred place and enter with the right foot by saying,
بسم الله و الحمد لله و السلام على رسول الله اللهم صل على سيدنا محمد و على ال سيدنا محمد و ازواج سيدنا محمد اللهم اغفر لي ذنوبي و افتح لي ابواب رحمتك
Bismillāhi wal Ḥamdu lillāhi was Salāmu Ala Rasūlil lāhi. Allahumma Ṣalli `Alā Sayyidina Muḥammadiw Wa `Alā Āli Sayyidina Muḥammadiw, Wa Azwāji Sayyidina Muḥammadin. Allahummagh firlī dhunūbi Waftaḥli Abwāba Raḥmatika
With Allah’s Name and All Praise is due to Allah, and Peace be upon Rasūlullah. O Allah! Send blessings upon our leader Sayyiduna Muhammad and upon the Noble Family of our Leader Sayyiduna Muhammad, and upon the Blessed wives of our Leader Sayyiduna Muhammad. O Allah! Forgive me my sins, and open unto me Your Doors of Mercy.
20. The above mentioned du`ā should be well memorized. Whenever going to the Ḥaram or to any other Masjid, do so in the prescribed manner and recite the above mentioned du`ā. When exiting a Masjid, always do so with the left foot and read the same du`ā, and in the end instead of ‘Raḥmatika’, say ‘Faḍlika’ and also add:
و سهل ابواب رزقك
‘Wa Sahhil Abwāba Rizqika’
‘And make easy (to receive) from your Doors of Sustenance’
The blessings of this in the worldly and Dīni life will be in abundance والحمد لله
Section 3: Ṭawāf & Sa`ī at Ṣafā, Marwah
Now that you have entered the Masjid ul Ḥarām, and Jamā`at is not in progress and if there is no risk of missing the Sunnah or the Farḍ or Witr, then first perform Ṭawāf, as the Ka`ba is the powerful light and you are like a moth attracted to this light. Have you not seen how the moth sacrifices itself going around the flame? Likewise, you should also be prepared to sacrifice yourself (in worship). First let us present a diagram of the Sanctified Ḥaram, so all that which is being explained may be well understood.
Masjid-ul-Ḥarām is an extensive circular surrounding. Along its sides are numerous openings and entry and exit doors. In the center is the Maṭāf, which is a circular area on which are placed marbled tiles. In the center of this, is the Holy Ka`ba. In the time of the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ, it was the same. On the eastern end of the Masjid-ul-Ḥarām is the Bābus Salām, which is an ancient door. The corner pillar of the building, where the two walls meet is known as ‘Zāwiyah’.
Similarly, AD and BD are joined at a common point ‘D’. This is known as Rukn-e-Zāwiyah
There are 4 pillars (i.e. corners) of the Holy Ka`ba:
Rukn-e-Aswad is the pillar (corner) situated in the Southeastern corner. In it is placed the ‘Sang-e-Aswad’ (The Black Stone), which is above ground level.
Rukn-e-`Irāqi is the pillar situated on one side, almost in the Northeastern corner. The door of the Holy Ka`ba is situated in the center of both the corners on the Eastern wall, and is raised above ground level.
Multazam is a portion of the very same Eastern wall, which extends from the Rukn-e-Aswad to the door of the Ka`ba.
Rukn-e-Shāmi is the pillar (corner) situated in the Northwestern corner. In it is the Mīzāb-e- Raḥmat which is a gold-drain (situated on the Ka`ba). This is fixed onto the roof of the Northern wall, between Rukn-e-Shāmi and Rukn-e-`Irāqi.
The Haṭīm is also in the direction of the same Northern wall. This piece of ground (Haṭīm) was part of the Holy Ka`ba. During the days of Ignorance, the Quraysh renovated the Holy Ka`ba. Due to a shortage of finances, they left out this portion of the Ka`ba Mu`aẓẓamah. They instead built a small wall in the shape of a bow around it, and one entry and exit door on either side. The Muslims are fortunate that they are able to enter the Haṭīm because to enter the Haṭīm is to enter the Holy Ka`ba, and Alḥamdulillāh the opportunity of entering into the Haṭīm is possible as it is accessible.
Rukn-e-Yamāni is situated in the Southwestern direction of the Masjid.
Mustaḥjār is that portion of the western wall, which is opposite the Multazam and between Rukn-e-Yamāni and Rukn-e-`Irāqi.
Mustaḥjāb is the Southern wall which is between Rukn-e-Aswad and Rukn-e-Yamāni. Here 70,000 Angels are appointed to say ‘Āmīn’ to one’s Duas. This humble servant has named it Mustaḥjāb.
Maqām e Ibrāhīm: In front of the Door of the Holy Ka`ba, this stone is placed in a dome like glass casing. Hazrat Ibrāhīm stood on this stone (rock) and constructed the Holy Ka`ba. On it is embedded the footprint of Hazrat Ibrāhīm which is present even up to this day, and which Almighty Allah has proclaimed as being one of His Signs. The Well of Zam-Zam is South of it in the Masjid Sharīf.
Bābuṣ Ṣafā: From amongst the Doors of the Masjid Sharīf, there is one Door which when exiting from leads to ‘Mount Ṣafā’. Ṣafā was a mountain which was South of the Holy Ka`ba and has now been hidden in the ground. Now, in the direction of the Qibla, a terrace has been constructed there, with stairs for climbing, and
‘Mount Marwah’, the other mountain for which there is also a terrace that faces the Qibla has been built with stairs to climb. The area between Ṣafā and Marwah now has a marketplace (Note: this was in the time of Aala Hazrat. This is not the case anymore). When walking from Ṣafā, there are shops on the right hand side, and on the left hand side, is the area of the Masjid-e-Ḥarām. (Nowadays, the area to the right of Ṣafā is enclosed. Actually the entirety of Ṣafā and Marwah is now inside an enclosed area. That which has been mentioned above was in the time of Aala Hazrat)
Mīlayn Akhḍarayn: refers to two green stones fixed onto the wall in the center of the distance (of Ṣafā and Marwah), just as stones are placed in the beginning of a mile. (Nowadays, there are two green lights there to symbolize the Mīlayn Akhḍarayn)
Mas`ā is that distance which is between these two pillars. (It is Sunnah to run in this area)
All these settings and facts should be well memorized from this booklet, so that there will be no need to go there and continuously query (concerning these important facts).
A person unaware of these facts is like a blind person, and a person with knowledge of this is like a person who can see clearly. Now that you are aware of all these facts, take the name of your Creator and commence with your Ṭawāf.
1. Before commencing with the Ṭawāf, the men should make ‘Iḍṭibā’ in other words they should take the upper sheet of the Iḥrām under the right arm and bring it over the left shoulder. Leave the right shoulder bare, and put both ends of the upper sheet on the left shoulder.
2. Now facing the Holy Ka`ba, standing on the right of the Hajr-e-Aswad, on the side of Rukn-e-Yamāni, stand close to the Hajr-e-Aswad in this manner, that the entire stone is on your right hand side, then make the Nīyyah of Ṭawāf:
اللهم إني اريد طواف بيتك المحرم فيسره لي و تقبله مني
Allahuma Inni Urīdu Ṭawāfa Baytikal Muḥarrami Fayassirhu lī Wa Taqabbalhu Minni
‘O Allah! I am intending for Umrah, to perform Ṭawāf of your Exalted House, so make it easy upon me, and accept it from me.’
3. After this Nīyyah, facing the Ka`ba, walk towards your right side. When in line with the Black Stone (And this can be done in a short movement) raise your hands in line with your ears, in this manner that the palms of the hands face the Hajr-e-Aswad and then say:
بسم الله و الحمد لله و الله اكبر و الصلاة و السلام على رسول لله
Bismillāhi Wal Ḥamdu lillāhi Wal lāhu Akbar, Was Ṣalātu was Salāmu Ala Rasūlillāhi
‘With Allah’s Name and All Praise is due to Allah; Allah is the Greatest; and peace and blessings (Salutations) be upon Rasūlullah.’
4. If one gets the opportunity, then place both palms on the Hajr-e-Aswad, and place the face between the hands, and kiss it in such a manner, that no sound is made. Do this 3 time If this opportunity is obtained, then this is a great blessing. Undoubtedly, your Nabi Muhammad ﷺ kissed it (the Black Stone) and kept his blessed face on it. It is very blessed and a good fortune if your face touches this place. If the crowd of people is too massive, then neither should you cause any discomfort or injury to anyone else, nor allow yourself to be hurt and trampled. Alternatively, touch it with the hands only, and if this is also not possible then touch it with a stick, and if even this is not possible then gesture by raising the hands towards it, and kiss the hands. Is it not sufficient that you are seeing the place that was touched by the Blessed face of the Prophet ﷺ?
اللهم ايمانا بك و اتباعا لسنة نبيك محمد صلى الله تعالى عليه و سلم
Allāhumma Īmānan bika Wat Tibā`an lī sunnati Nabīyyika Muḥammadin ṣallal lāhu ta`āla `alayhi wa sallama
‘O Allah! By bringing Īmān on You, and by following the Sunnah of Your Nabi, Muhammad (I am performing this Ṭawāf)
Now, whilst reading this, go forth towards the Ka`ba. When passing in front of the Hajr-e-Aswad, straighten yourself in this manner that you walk with the Ka`ba on your left hand side, not causing discomfort to anyone else.
6. Men should walk making Raml, in other words walk briskly taking short steps and holding out the shoulders, like the way strong wrestlers usually walk. You should neither jump nor run. If the crowd is too much and there is fear of hurting yourself or another person, then discontinue Raml for that moment.
7. When performing Ṭawāf, the closer to the Ka`ba you get, the better it is. However, one should not get so close that the clothes start to rub against the edge of the walls. If due to the crowds, Raml is not possible, then in this case it is better to do so from a distance.
8. One should make du`ā, when passing in front of Multazam, Rukn-e-`Irāqi, Mezāb e Raḥmat and Rukn e Shāmi. For each one, there are special du`ās prescribed which have been quoted in Jawāhirul Bayān Sharīf. All these du`ās are difficult to read, thus recite that which has been promised acceptance and greatness by Rasūlullah. Here and on all occasions, in place of the du`ā, read that which is the best, and that is to send Durūd and Salāms upon the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ.
Sayyiduna Rasūlullah ﷺ has stated,
إذاً تكفى همك و يغفر لك ذنوبك
If you do this, then Allah will fulfill all your needs and forgive all your sins (Tirmidhī, Ḥadīth 2457)
9. In Ṭawāf, do not stop reciting any du`ā or Durūd. Even while walking, one should recite du`ā and Durūd.
10. Do not scream loudly when reciting du`ās and Durūd like the Maṭūfs read (i.e. the guides that help people there). Recite softly in a manner whereby the sound reaches your own ears.
11. When reaching Rukn-e-Yamāni, reach out and touch it with both hands or with the right hand, and not only with the left hand, and if you wish, you may also kiss it. If this is not possible here, you should not touch it with a stick or point towards it and kiss the hands (like with Hajr e Aswad).
12. As you pass here, you will approach Mustahjāb, where 70,000 Angels are saying Āmīn to your du`ās. Here you should read all your du`ās and you should make du`ās with the intention of Thawāb for all your family and friends and for this humble servant (Aala Hazrat) as well, but recitation of Durūd is sufficient.
13. Now, when you return to Ḥajr-e-Aswad, then you have completed one circuit. In this very manner, complete 7 circuits, and there is no need for Nīyyah in the other circuits as this has already been made in the first circuit. Raml should only be done in the first 3 circuits and the others should be done calmly, without stretching out the arms etc
14. When the 7 circuits have been completed, then kiss the Ḥajr-e-Aswad, or point towards it with a stick or hands as it has been explained earlier on.
15. After the Ṭawāf, approach the Maqām-e-Ibrāhīm and recite the verse:
و اتخذوا من مقام ابراهيم مصلى
‘And take the standing place of Ibrāhīm, as a place of prayer’ (Baqara, 2:125)
After this perform 2 Rak`ats of Ṣalāh for Ṭawāf, which is Wājib and read Sūrah Kāfirūn and Ikhlāṣ in it. If the time is in the disallowed period, i.e. the exact time of sunrise until the sun has properly risen, time of Zawāl (mid-day when sun is at Zenith), and after `Aṣr till setting of the sun, then it (the two Rak`ats) should be performed after this time expires. After these Rak`ats, recite du`ā. Here is a du`ā which has been mentioned in the Ḥadīth, and which has great benefits attributed to it:
اللهم إنك تعلم سري و علانتي فاقبل معذرتي و تعلم حاجتي فاعطني سؤلي و تعلم ما في نفسي فاغفرلي ذنوبي اللهم إني أسئلك ايمانا يباشر قلبي و يقينا صادقا حتى أعلم أنه لا يصيبني إلا ما كتبت لي و ارضى من المعيشة بما قسمت لي يا أرحم الراحمين
Allahumma Innaka Ta`lamu Sirri wa `Alāniyati Faqbal Ma`dhirati Wa Ta`lamu Ḥājati Fa’tini Su‘āli wa Ta`lamu Ma fi Nafsi Fagh firli Dhunūbi. Allahumma Inni As’aluka Īmānan Yubāshiru Qalbi wa Yaqīnan Ṣādiqan Ḥattā A`lama Annahu La Yuṣībuni illa Ma Katabta lī Wa Arda minal Ma`īshat Bimā Qasamta li, Ya Arḥamar Rāḥimīn.
‘O Allah! Verily you are well aware of my hidden and apparent (condition); Accept my plea, and You know well my need, so fulfil what I ask for; and You know well what is in my heart, so forgive me my sins. O Allah! I ask of You such Īmān which will be embedded in my heart, and True conviction, that I may realize that I will only receive that which You have written for me; and I am satisfied (and completely pleased) with the sustenance which you have afforded me; O Most Merciful of those who show Mercy.
In the Ḥadīth it has been stated that Almighty Allah says,
‘Whosoever makes this du`ā, I will forgive his sins, take away his sorrows, take him out of his dependency, give him more prosperity in his business than all other business people, and the world will be forced to come to him, to such an extent that he will not desire it.’
16. Now return to the Multazam and put your arms across it close to the stone and touch it with your chest and stomach and even touch it with the right side of your face, and sometimes with the left side of your face. Then raise both your hands high and spread them on the wall or touch it in a manner whereby the right hand faces its door and the left hand faces the Sang-e-Aswad. The following du`ā should then be recited at this point:
يا واجد يا ماجد لا تزل عني نعمة انعمتها عليها
Yā Wājidu Yā Mājidu La Tuzil `Anni Ni`matan An`amtaha `Alayya
‘O Creator! O The Most Exalted! Do not diminish from me the blessings which you have blessed me with’
17. Then approach the Well of Zam-Zam and if possible, pull up one bucket. If this is not possible, then take it from those distributing it. Then face the Ka`ba and in 3 breaths drink as much as you can drink. Every time, commence with Bismillāh and end with Alḥamdu Lillāh. The remaining water should be rubbed on the body, and when drinking Zam-Zam, make du`ā since du`ā is accepted during this time. Rasūlullah ﷺ has stated, ‘For whatever intention one drinks Zam–Zam, it is for that.’
Over here, recite Dua-e-Jāmi`. You should drink Zam-Zam as often as possible whilst you are in Makkah Mu`aẓẓamah. Drink to be protected from the thirst of Qiyāmah, drink with the intention of being spared from the punishment of the grave, for increasing the love of the Beloved Nabi, for abundance in sustenance, for the cure of illnesses, for gaining knowledge and for all virtuous needs etc. [Note: Nowadays the well of Zam-Zam is sealed off to the public and Zam-Zam is available in the Ḥaram in containers. You may drink from there]
18. When drinking there (i.e. when drinking Zam-Zam), drink a full stomach. It has been mentioned in the Hadith that, ‘The difference between us and the Munāfiqs is that they do not drink a full stomach of Zam-Zam’
19. Also try to look into the well of Zam-Zam as it has been stated in the Ḥadīth that it is a means of getting rid of Hypocrisy. [Unfortunately nowadays, the well of Zam-Zam has been sealed off to the general public and to look inside or draw water from it by your self is not possible.]
20. If there is no difficulty such as fatigue etc., then either start immediately, or take some rest, and then proceed to Ṣafā and Marwah to perform the Sa`ī. In doing so, return to Hajr-e-Aswad and like you did before, read Takbīr etc and kiss it or perform the routine explained earlier. From Bābuṣ Ṣafā, immediately proceed towards Ṣafā. When exiting the door, take the left foot out first and then place the right foot into the shoe. This is the manner for exiting any Masjid.
21. Engrossed in Durūd, climb the stairs of Ṣafā at a height from where the Ka`ba is visible, and this is visible from the first stair [Nowadays it is visible when you are at the top end of Ṣafā]. Then facing the Ka`ba, like in du`ā, raise both hands up to the shoulders and make Tasbīḥ and Tahlīl, and recite Durūd and du`ā for an extended period as it is a place of acceptance. You should also recite Du`ā-e-Jāmi` here. Whilst reciting Dhikr and Durūd Sharīf, proceed towards Marwah.
22. When approaching the first column (green light), the men should begin to run (They should not run so fast that they cause harm to anyone else) until the second green column (green light) and all du`ā should be made between these two columns (lights). The du`ā here is:
رب اعفرلي و ارحم و انت الأعز الأكرم
Rabbigh Firli War Ḥam Wa Antal A`azzul Akram
‘O my Lord! For me, and have Mercy (on me), and You alone are the Most Exalted, Most Generous’
23. After passing the second column, slow down again until you reach Marwah. Stand on the first step or close to it in Marwah and due to the Ka`ba being blocked by any buildings etc. turn towards the Ka`ba and do as you did at Ṣafā. This is now one circuit. (In other words one will go from Ṣafā to Marwah, then back to Ṣafā. Every time you go back to Ṣafā you have completed 2 Circuits. The Last will be from Ṣafā and will end at Marwah)
24. Continue going back and forth from Ṣafā to Marwah until you have done 7 circuit The 7th circuit should end at Marwah. Every circuit should be done in this manner. This is known as Sa`ī. It should be known that `Umrah is only the name of the actions of Ṭawāf and Sa`ī, even for those doing Tamattu` and Qirān. For those doing Ifrād, this is ‘Ṭawāf -e-Qudūm’. This is for the respect of the Ḥaram.
25. Qārin, the person who intended Qirān, should make another Ṭawāf and Sa`ī with the intention of Ṭawāf -e- Qudūm.
26. The Qārin as well as the Mufrid, meaning the one who intended Ifrād, should remain in Mecca with Iḥrām, by saying Labbayk. Their Labbayk stops on the 10th, at time of pelting the Jamrāt (shayṭān). Only then will they come out of the Iḥrām. This will be explained in detail further in the book. The Mutamatti`, meaning the person performing Tamattu`, and the Mu`tamir, meaning the one who is performing simply `Umrah, should discontinue Labayk immediately when beginning the Ṭawāf of the Ka`ba Mu`aẓẓamah when kissing of Ḥajr-e-Aswad.
After Ṭawāf and Sa`ī, as explained, they should perform Ḥalaq (men should remove the hair and women should trim the hair slightly, i.e. equal to a finger joint) and then come out of Iḥrām.
If the one performing Tamattu` desires, then he may stay without Iḥrām until the 8th of Dhil Ḥijjah, but it is better to tie the Iḥrām of Ḥajj early. If one does not consider this, that the days are many, these restrictions will not be constant.
In Ṭawāf -e-Qudūm, Iḍṭiba, Raml, and Sa`ī of Ṣafā and Marwah is not necessary, but if it is not done now, then it must be done in Ṭawāf -e-Ziyārah, as the Ṭawāf of Ḥajj is Farḍ, and this will be explained later on Inshā Allāh. In Ṭawāf -e-Ziyārah all these actions must be completed, but during this time the crowd will be massive. It will not be surprising if one does not get the opportunity to make Ramal, or run at Mas`a. If these were already completed in the beginning, then there is no need for it in this Ṭawāf. Thus, I have kept them absolute when explaining the sequence.
27. Those performing Ifrād and Qirān have completed the Ṭawāf and Sa`ī of Ḥajj in the Ṭawāf -e-Qudūm. Those performing Tamattu` have actually only completed the Ṭawāf and Sa`ī of `Umrah. The Raml and Sa`i of Ḥajj will not be fulfilled by this, as there is no Ṭawāf -e- Qudūm for them, as is in the case of the Qārin, whereby he may perform these actions and in doing so, he is released from this, as he has completed what is due upon him. However, if the Mutamatti` also wishes to perform these actions early and be relieved of them, then when he ties the Iḥrām of Ḥajj, he should perform a Nafl Ṭawāf, and in it, he should perform Raml and Sa`ī. Now he does not have to fulfil these in Ṭawāf -e-Ziyārah.
28. Now all Ḥujjāj (be they Qārin, Mutamatti`, or Mufrid) will be in waiting in Mecca Muaẓẓamah, for the 8th of Dhil Ḥijjah to go to Minā. Whilst waiting, make as many Ṭawāf as possible, without Iḍṭiba, Raml and Sa`ī. This is the best `Ibādat for those who come from outside (i.e. foreign Ḥujjāj). After every 7 circuits, 2 Rak`ats Ṣalāh should be read at Maqām e Ibrāhīm.
29. Now, when returning from Minā, no matter how many times your sight falls upon the Holy Ka`ba, you say thrice:
لا اله إلا الله و الله أكبر
La ilāha illal lāhu Wallāhu Akbar
‘There is none worthy of worship, but Allah, And Allah is The Greatest’
Thereafter, send Durūd in abundance upon Nabi Muḥammad ﷺ and make Dua, as this is a time of acceptance.
30. Even if one is making Nafl Ṭawāf, the following actions are Ḥarām (prohibited):
30.1. To make Ṭawāf without Wuḍū
30.2. For one quarter of any of the Satr (hidden portion of the body) to be exposed e.g. the thigh, or the ear of a free female etc.
30.3. To make Ṭawāf whilst riding, or whilst being carried by someone, or whilst on someone’s shoulders, without a valid reason.
30.4. To drag yourself whilst sitting, or to walk on the knees, without a valid reason.
30.5. To make Ṭawāf in the opposite direction, with the Ka`ba being on your right.
30.6. To pass from inside the Ḥaṭīm during the Ṭawāf.
30.7. To perform less than 7 circuits.
31. The following actions are Makrūh (defective/disapproved) in Ṭawāf:
31.1. To talk unnecessarily
31.2. To sell
31.3. To buy
31.4. To recite any poetry besides Ḥamd, Na`t and Manqabat.
31.5. To make Dhikr, du`ā, Tilāwat, or any other recitation in a very loud voice.
31.6. To make Ṭawāf in Na-Pāk (impure, unclean) clothes.
31.7. Not to kiss the Hajr-e-Aswad and not to make Iḍṭiba, or Raml at the places where they have been commanded.
31.8. To delay the circuits for too long; in other words, to do a few circuits and then wait a while, or to become engrossed in something else and then do the rest thereafter.
31.9. If all 7 circuits have not been completed but Wuḍū has broken, then perform Wuḍū and return. If Jamā`at is in procession and one has not performed his Ṣalāh as yet, then he should join the Jamā`at, and continue Ṭawāf after the Jamā`at from where he left off. One is even permitted to leave Ṭawāf to join Janāzah Ṣalāh and after it has been completed, one may continue Ṭawāf from where he left off.
31.10. If there is a need to answer the call of nature (visit the toilet) then it should be done, and thereafter a fresh Wuḍū should be made, and one should continue from the point where he left off.
31.11. If the 2 Rak`ats are not read after every Ṭawāf (7 circuits), the next Ṭawāf is not allowed. If it is an objectionable time, such as in the time between Subḥ-o- Ṣādiq and Sunrise; or after performing `Aṣr Ṣalāh until the time of sunset, because in this time, performing numerous Ṭawāfs are permitted, but after this objectionable time has passed, the 2 Rak`ats should be read.
31.12. To make Ṭawāf when the Imam is delivering the Khutbah.
31.13. If you have completed Ṣalāh in the first Jamā`at, it is allowed to make Ṭawāf during the other Jamā`ats, and you are permitted walk in front of the praying people, since Ṣalāh is similar to Ṭawāf (i.e. it is `Ibādat).
31.14. To eat during Ṭawāf
31.15. To make Ṭawāf hurriedly whilst having the need to answer the call of nature or pass air.
32. The following are Mubāḥ (lawful) in Ṭawāf and Sa`ī:
32.1. To convey Salām
32.2. To reply to Salām
32.3. To drink water
32.4. To read Ḥamd, Na`t and Manqabat softly
32.5. To eat during Sa`ī
32.6. To speak out of necessity
32.7. To ask any Fatwa (Islamic Verdicts – Questions)
32.8. To give a Fatwa (i.e. to decree a Religious verdict)
33. Like in the case of Ṭawāf, it is impermissible and sinful to sit and perform Sa`ī, or to be on a mode of transport (i.e. to sit on an animal etc.) and perform the Sa`i without a valid reason.
34. The following actions are Makrūh (Defective) in Sa`ī:
34.1. To unnecessarily delay between circuits of Sa`ī without need. However one may do so to join Jamā`at or Janāzah Ṣalāh. One may break the circuit to answer the call of nature, or to make fresh Wuḍu even though it is not necessary in Sa`ī.
34.2. To buy anything
34.3. To sell anything
34.4. Unnecessary conversation
34.5. Not to climb on Ṣafā and Marwah
34.6. For men not to run in Mas`a without a valid reason
34.7. To have a lengthy delay after Ṭawāf and then perform Sa`i.
34.8. Not to hide the private ornaments of the body
34.9. To look around frantically as if worried in Sa`ī is Makrūh, and in Ṭawāf, it is even more Makrūh.
Case/Issue: To perform Sa`ī without Wuḍu is permissible but to have Wuḍu is Mustaḥab (desirable/preferred).
35. In the laws of Ṭawāf and Sa`ī, the command for men and women are the same, but for women there is no Raml, Iḍṭiba and running in Sa`ī (Ṣafā & Marwah).
In case of hindrance, women should not try to kiss the Black Stone, touch the Ka`ba, embrace the Rukn-e- Yamāni, look inside the Well of Zam-Zam, or fill water by themselves. If these actions can be done without touching the bodies of other men, then it is allowed; if not they should abstain as much as possible from these actions.
SECTION 4: Departure to Minā & Wuqūf-e-`Arafāt
1. On the 7th of Dhil Ḥijjah, after Ẓuhr Ṣalāh, the Imam will read the Khutbah in Masjid-e-Ḥarām. Listen to it.
2. ‘Yawm-ut-Tarwīya’ refers to the 8th of Dhil Ḥijjah. One who has not as yet put on the Iḥrām should wear it and make one Nafl Ṭawāf, Ramal, & Sa`ī just as it has been explained earlier on.
3. When the sun rises, depart for Minā, and if possible do this by foot, for as long as you return to Mecca Mu`aẓẓamah, you will receive 700 good deeds for every ste After a complete calculation (of the distance by foot), the approximate amount of Thawāb estimated was 78 billion 40 million good deeds. The Grace of Almighty Allah upon the Ummah of Our Nabi is unlimited.
4. Recite Labbayk, du`ā, and Durūd Sharīf and Glorification in abundance throughout this journe
5. When Minā is in sight say,
اللهم هذه منى فامنُن علي كما مننت به على اوليائك
Allahumma Hādhihi Minā Famnun `Alayya Kamā mananta bihi `Alā Awliyā‘ika
O Allah! This is Mina, Bless me with that favor with which you have favored your Chosen servants (Friends).
6. Stay over here at night and from the Ẓuhr of that day up to the morning of the 9th, pray 5 Ṣalāhs in the Masjid e Khayf. Nowadays, some Maṭūfs (Ḥajj guides) have started a new practice whereby they say that you should not stay in Minā on the 8th, but you should go to `Arafāt immediately (at night). Do not listen to them and leave out this very virtuous Sunnah. If the group insists, then the Maṭūfs too will be compelled to stay over with the group.
7. The eve of `Arafāt should be spent in Minā, engrossed in Dhikr and other `Ibādāt until morning. There are many days ahead for sleeping. If one cannot stay awake for the entire night, then at least read the `Isha and the Fajr Ṣalāh with the first Jamā`at, so that you may attain the reward of being awake for the entire night; and sleep with Wuḍū, for the soul will be elevated up to the `Arsh.
8. After reading the Fajr Ṣalāh in the desired time, engross yourself in Labbayk, Dhikr, and Durūd until the sun is upon Mount Thabīr, which is in front of Masjid-e- Khayf Sharīf. Now proceed to `Arafāt. Remove the thoughts of all other obstacles from the heart and mind, as today is the day when the Ḥajj of certain people will be accepted, whilst others will be forgiven on their behalf. Deprived is one who is deprived tod When disturbed by ‘waswasa’ (shayṭāni distraction), do not tussle with it, since the intention of the enemy is accomplished in this. (In other words ignore all such distractions)
He (shayṭān) wants this, that you must be embroiled in other things such as fighting distractions etc. in order to divert your mind. Even then, do not think about this, and just think that there is some other existing thing that is causing these thoughts. You should think that, I only have intention to please my Creator ‘Allah’. Inshā Allāh, the accursed one will flee without causing any more distress to you.
9. Spend the entire journey in Dhikr and Durūd Sharīf. Do not make unnecessary conversation. Recite Labbayk in abundance.
10. When your sight falls upon Jabl e Raḥmat, then increase these activities (i.e. Dhikr and Durūd etc), since Inshā Allāh, this is a time of acceptance.
11. In `Arafāt, carefully disembark near the blessed mountain, or anywhere you get space, away from the traffic.
12. During this time, there are hundreds of thousands of people setting up tents on the Plains of `Arafāt and after going out and returning, it becomes difficult to find your camp. Thus it would be preferable to place a marker there, so that you will remember where your tent is pitched and it will be visible even from a distance.
13. If you are being accompanied by women, then attach a brightly colored piece of material to their Burqa (Head Gear), so that they can be seen from a distance and so that you may be relieved due to thi
14. Until noon, spend your time in the remembrance of Almighty Allah, with total concentration, reverence and devotion. Engross yourself in the Dhikr of Almighty Allah, the recitation of Labbayk, recitation of Durūd Sharīf, du`ā, Istighfār (repentance), recitation of the Kalima Tawḥīd, and in distributing Khayrāt (optional charity) as per your resource It has been mentioned in the Hadith Sharīf, that Nabi Muhammad ﷺhas stated that the best of all things which I and all the other Ambia عليهم الصلاة و السلام before me have said on this day is:
لا اله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له له الملك و له الحمد يُحي و يميت و هو حي لا يموت بيده الخير و هو على كل شيء قدير
Lā ilāha Illal lāhu Waḥdahu Lā Sharīka lahu Lahul Mulku Walahul Ḥamdu Yuḥyi Wa Yumītu. Wa Huwa Ḥayyun Lā Yamūtu, Biyadihil Khayr Wa Huwa `Alā Kulli Shay’in Qadīr
‘There is none worthy of worship, but Allah; He is One, Alone without any partner, For Him is the Dominion, and for Him is there All Praise. It is He who gives life and causes death; And He is All Alive, and will never die. All goodness is in His Divine Control, and He has Divine Power over all things.’
15. Before noon, relieve yourself from eating and drinking etc., so that the heart may be at ease, and not be diverted by these things. On this day it is not preferable for a Ḥāji to keep fast, as it will cause weakness during du`ā. Likewise, one should not eat a full stomach or over eat, as this is like poison and will cause you to become lethargic and oblivious. A person, who usually eats 3 rotis, should eat only 1 roti. The Beloved Rasūl ﷺ always commanded this until he himself left this world, in a the condition whereby he never ate a full stomach of Roti (i.e. bread or food) even though Almighty Allah had granted him the power over everything, and to have whatever he wished. If you wish to reap the blessings and attain Nūr, then not just on this day, but for as long as you live in the Ḥaramayn Sharīfayn, never fill more than one third of the stomach. It you accept this advice, you will see the benefits, and if you do not follow this advice, you will see the harmful effects with your own eyes. Try this for a week, and if it does not make a difference to your condition, then you have the right to say something! There are many other days in your life for eating and drinking. Here, you should keep yourself empty, so that you may fill yourself with Nūr and blessings.
‘What will an already full body be able to accommodate?’
16. When the time of Noon is near, take a bath as it is Sunnat-e-Mu’akkadah to do so. If this is not possible, then perform Wuḍū.
17. At Noon, or just before this, enter Masjid e Nimrah and find a place next to the Imam. Read the Sunnats and listen to the Khutbah and then read Ẓuhr with the Imam. Between these, there should be no Salām and Qiyām; even no Sunnah should be read thereafter, and there is no Nafl (allowed) after `Aṣr as well. The only time that Ẓuhr and `Aṣr can be combined here is if the Sultan personally performs the prayer or if someone appointed as his deputy in Ḥajj performs it. It is not Ḥalāl for one who has performed his Ẓuhr alone or with his own special Jamā`at, to perform `Aṣr before the appointed time of `Aṣr, and the reason for which Shariat has commanded that the `Aṣr and Ẓuhr be combined in this condition, (in other words) to give one sufficient time up to the time of sunset for the purpose of du`ā, will no longer be applicable. (In other words, the law of combining Ẓuhr and `Aṣr will not be valid if the conditions as stipulated are not met, so one should thus read the Ẓuhr in its appointed time and then `Aṣr in its appointed time).
18. Think about how wrong and disrespectful it would be to do anything else in this time which the Shariah has prescribed and set aside for making du`ā. I have seen certain disrespectful persons that when the Imam is in prayer or when he has completed his prayer and gone to Mu’aqif, they are wasting their time eating, drinking, smoking ḥuqqa and making tea.
Beware! Never behave in this manner. After performing prayer behind the Imam, immediately go to the ‘Mu’aqif’ (This is the place where one should stand at and make du`ā from after prayer, right up to the time of sunset).
If possible, do so whilst sitting on a camel, since it is Sunnah, and it is one way of being safe from the stampeding and trampling of the huge crowds.
19. Certain Maṭūfs (Ḥajj guides) prevent people from going into these congregations, by putting fear into them in different ways. Do not listen to them. This is a place where special Mercy is descending in abundance. Definitely! The womenfolk and the weak men should stand where they are, and continue with their du`ā; with the exception of ‘Baṭan `Arafa’ (This is one of the drains from the Ḥaram in `Arafāt, which is to the West of Masjid-e- Nimrah, in the direction of Mecca Mu`aẓẓamah). To make Wuqūf there is not permissible. With the exception of this, the entire area is `Arafāt. These people, (women and the weak) should visualize that they are also in the crowd of people on the Plains of `Arafāt and they should not think of themselves as separate. In that congregation, there are definitely many Awliyah and not only them; but Ambiyā’ such as Hazrat Ilyās and Khiḍr عليهم الصلاة و السلام are present there. You should visualize that the Nūr and Raḥmat that is descending on this congregation of people (more importantly the Ambiyā’ عليهم الصلاة و السلام) is being bestowed upon us beggars in their ṣadaqa (i.e. due to their blessings). In this way, even though you are separate from them, you will still be with them, and for those who can be present there, this is not something to be missed.
20. Here, it is better to stand near the Imam, close to Jabl e Raḥmat where there is a floor of black stone, facing the Qibla; Stand in this manner if there is no risk of causing harm or discomfort to anyone. If not, make Wuqūf (stand in du`ā) wherever and however possible. Stand on either the right or the left of the Imam, as it is better than standing in front of him. It is the Wuqūf-e-`Arafāt which is the essence and a great pillar of the Ḥajj.
21. Certain ignorant people behave in a manner whereby they climb onto the mountain and wave their handkerchiefs etc. Avoid such actions and do not pay any attention to them. However, do not think ill of those who do this as well. This is not a time to look for the faults of others, but it is the time to look for your own faults and weaknesses, and to cleanse yourself of your own shortcomings and faults, by being ashamed of them and weeping (in repentance).
22. And now those that are here and in the thousands, altogether, should direct their thoughts to the Most Merciful Creator (i.e. they should seek Allah’s Mercy) sincerely from their hearts and think about how they are going to answer to Him on the Maydān e Ḥashr (Plains of Resurrection) for all their deeds. With total devotion, respect and submission, fear, trembling and hoping, close your eyes, bow your head and raise your hands in du`ā towards the sky, high above your head. Absorb and engross yourself in Takbīr, Tahlīl, du`ā, Tasbīḥ, Labbayk, Ḥamd, Dhikr, du`ā, and sincere repentance. Try to shed at least one tear as this is a sign of acceptance and approval. If this is not possible, then keep a sad face, since the good appearance of a person is also sign of good. When making du`ā, continuously repeat the Labayk. There have been many du`ās prescribed for this day, but the Du`ā -e- Jāmi` which has been quoted earlier is enough for this day. This should be recited a few times, and it is better that you spend your time in Durūd, Dhikr and recitation of the Holy Qur’an, since according to the promise of the Hadith, you will gain more than those who are asking du`ā. Firmly grasp the Dāman of the Prophet ﷺ. Use the mediation of Hazrat Ghawth-e-A`ẓam.
Regarding your sins, think of the Wrath of Allah and tremble in this thought. Let it be known that from His Wrath, only with Him is there protection, and you cannot flee from Almighty Allah. With the exception of His Divine Court, there is nowhere else to go. Thus, taking the blessing of the intercessors (i.e. the Ambiyā’ and Awliyā’) in your hand, ask protection in Him from His punishment, and remain in the condition that sometimes, due to his Ghaḍab (Anger), you tremble and sometimes through his Mercy, your disillusioned heart blooms again.
Remain in this condition until the sun sets and one magnificent portion of the night appears. To depart from `Arafāt before this is not allowed. Certain people hastily depart during the day. Do not follow them. If it were meant to leave before the time of sunset, then why would it be commanded to combine the Ẓuhr and `Aṣr Ṣalāh? Who knows when the Special Mercy of Almighty Allah will be directed towards you?
If (Allah forbid) this Mercy descended after your early departure, it will be such a great loss. If one leaves the boundaries of `Arafāt before Maghrib, then this is an offence, and as a penalty for this offence, one will have to sacrifice an animal (i.e. make a Qurbāni). The guides usually tell the people not to stay overnight since it is not a safe. This would only be the case if there were one or two people staying. Here you find groups upon groups staying, then Inshā Allāh, there will be no risk of danger.
23. There is an etiquette on this day which is essential to commit to memo It is to think and have complete faith in the promise of Allah Almighty, believing that today I have become so pure from sins, like the moment I was born from the womb of my mother. After this, you should try not to sin anymore and think that the stain which Almighty Allah has washed out from my forehead through His Mercy should never appear again.
24. The following actions are Makruh at `Arafāt
(a). To suspend the Wuqūf before sunset, that is you do not leave the boundary of `Arafāt before sunset, as it is Ḥarām to leave the boundaries before sunset.
(b). to delay going towards the area of Wuqūf after reading Ẓuhr and `Aṣr Ṣalāh.
(c). to be engrossed in eating, drinking, and anything else rather than the remembrance of Allah up to sunset.
(d). to engage oneself in worldly conversation
(e). after confirming the sunset, to delay in departing from
(f). to read Maghrib or `Ishā’ in `Arafāt.
Try to avoid erecting umbrellas or anything for shade when making Wuqūf. However, those who are helpless in this regard are excused.
An Extremely Important Note
To look at a woman unnecessarily with improper intentions is totally Ḥarām (Forbidden) at any given time. This is not permissible in Iḥrām and in Mu’aqqif, or in front of the Ka`ba, or whilst making Ṭawāf of the Bayt-ul-Ḥarām. This is a time of great test for you. Here, the women have been commanded not to cover their faces and you have been commanded not to look towards them. You should strongly believe that they are the slaves of the Greatest King, and both you and they are present in His Court. An example without comparison is this, that if a cub is beside a lion, who will dare look towards it? The (female) servants of Almighty Allah Qahhār are in His Court. How severe and serious it is to look at them with evil intentions!
و لله المثل الأعلى
Wisely, protect your Imān and watch your heart and sight. The Ḥaram is a place where even the intention of committing a sin holds accountability, and one sin is equivalent to one hundred thousand sins. Oh Allah! Give us the Tawfīq to do good things. Āmīn
SECTION 5: Departure to Minā and Muzdalifa & all other Actions of Ḥajj
1. As soon as the sun sets, immediately depart to Muzdalifa, and it is better to do so with the Imam. However, if the Imam is delayed, then do not wait for him.
2. On this entire journey, engross yourself in du`ā, Labayk, Durūd, and weeping (in the Court of Allah).
3. On the journey, wherever you find the opportunity, try to go a little faster, either on foot or on conveyance et However, when doing this, you should try not to cause discomfort to others.
4. When Muzdalifa is in sight, it is better to go on foot according to your ability to do so. It is more virtuous to take a bath before entering Muzdalifa.
5. When arriving there, try your best to avoid disembarking near the main pathway of the mountains, otherwise disembark wherever you find space.
6. Most probably, you will reach Muzdalifa when the sun has set completely and the time of Maghrib has expired. Before unloading your luggage etc. read Maghrib and `Ishā’ with the Imam and if there is still time for Maghrib Ṣalāh when you reach, do not pray Maghrib. Even on the journey (to Muzdalifa), do not read Maghrib Ṣalāh in the time of Maghrib. On this day, it is a sin to read the Maghrib Ṣalāh in the time of Maghrib. If you have already read it, then it will have to be repeated in the time of `Ishā’.
Thus, after reaching Muzdalifa, read Maghrib in the time of `Ishā’ with the Nīyyat of Ada (prompt) Ṣalāh and not with the Nīyyat of Qaḍa Ṣalāh (expired). Try your best to read with the Imam.
The Imam will perform the Farḍ of Maghrib first in Jamā`at. After he completes his prayer with Salām, it will immediately be followed with the Jamā`at of `Ishā’. After you pray the Farḍ of `Ishā’, you should pray the Sunnats of Maghrib and `Ishā’. The Witr should be prayed thereafter. If you were not able to get the Jamā`at with the Imam, then make your own Jamā`at. If this too is not possible, read your Ṣalāh individually.
7. The rest of the night should be spent in Dhikr, Labayk, Durūd, and du`ā, as this is a very exalted place and this night is a very excellent night. If we are blessed with life, we will have many other nights to sleep in. Allah knows who will get this night again and who will not! Remain in complete Ṭahārat (cleanliness). It is however better to sleep, rather than to engross yourself in unnecessary conversation. You should rise before first light and complete all natural needs and perform Ṭahārat (purification). Today Fajr will be prayed in much darkness. Try to join the Jamā`at with the Imam and try not to miss even the first Takbīr. The person who prays `Ishā’ and Fajr here with Jamā`at attains the Thawāb of staying awake in `Ibādat for the entire night.
8. Now the time for the second Hāziri (presence) at the Exalted Court has come. The Doors of Mercy and blessings are opene In the entire `Arafāt, Huqūqullah have been forgiven and here He has promised the forgiving of Huqūqul `Ibād. Perform Wuqūf on Mash`arul Ḥarām, in other words the special mountain, if not, close to this and if not, anywhere else except ‘Wādi-e-Mahsar’ (This is a drainpipe between Minā and Muzdalifa and is outside both the boundaries. It starts on the mountain on the right, when going towards Minā and is almost 545 hand lengths. The Aṣḥāb-e-Fīl stopped here. Here the punishment of the Ababīl descended. One should pass here swiftly and ask protection from the punishment of Almighty Allah). When performing Wuqūf here, follow all that which was mentioned in regards to Wuqūf-e-`Arafāt.
9. When the time remaining before sunrise is equal to that which is needed to perform 2 Rak`ats, then depart with the Imam to Minā. Here you should pick 7 little stones equivalent to date seeds from a clean place. Wash each one thrice. Do not break any large stones to acquire these pebbles.
10. Throughout this trip, engross yourself in Dhikr, Durūd, Labbayk, etc.
11. When reaching Wādi-e-Maḥsir, go swiftly across the 545 hand lengths. However do not speed to an extent that you cause harm to anyone else. While passing through, read the following du`ā:
اللهم لا تقتلنا بغضبك و لا تُهلكنا بعذابك و عافنا قبل ذلك
Allahumma La Taqtulna Bi Ghaḍbika Wa la Tuhlikna Bi Adhābika wa `Āfina Qabla Dhālika
‘O Allah! Do not slay us by Your Wrath, and do not destroy us by Your Punishment, and grant us salvation before that’
12. When Minā is in sight, read the same du`ā that you read on seeing Minā when arriving from Mecca.
13. On arrival in Minā, before doing anything else, proceed to the ‘Jamrāt ul `Uqba’ (one of the 3 pillars between Minā and Mecca), which from this direction is the latter Jamrah and from Mecca the first, and in the center of the gorge. Stand 5 hand lengths away from the Jamrah in a manner whereby Minā is on your right and Ka`ba is on your left, and you are facing the Jamrah. Take the 7 pebbles, each separatel Lift up the right hand completely and allow the underarm to be visible, then say
بسم الله الله أكبر
Bismillahi Allahu Akbar (once)
‘With Allah’s Name; Allah is The Greatest’
And throw the stones one at a time. It is preferable that the stone reaches the Jamrah. If not, it should fall within the distance of 3 hand lengths. If the stones fall further away than this, they will not count. From the first stone, discontinue the Labayk.
14. When the 7 stones have been thrown, do not del Return immediately with du`ā and Dhikr.
15. Now, do your Qurbāni. This is not that Qurbāni which is done during Eid, because in reality, that is not for Musāfirs (travelers), but is wājib (compulsory) upon a Muqīm (resident). Even though the Qurbāni is done in Ḥajj, it is a token of appreciation for Ḥajj. For those performing Qirān and Tamattu`, this is Wājib, even if they are Faqīr.
(A Faqīr who does not have in his possession an animal which he may sacrifice, or if he does not have the money to sacrifice an animal, then he may compensate with ten fasts which will be wājib upon him. The first 3 should be kept between the 1st of Shawwāl and the 9th of Dhulḥijja after tying Iḥrām, preferably the 7th, 8th and 9th and the other 7 should be kept whenever he wishes after the thirteenth, preferably after reaching home).
For the one performing Ifrād, it is Mustaḥab (desirable), even if he may be wealthy. The conditions in regards to the age and the build of the animals are the same as the conditions prescribed for the animal in Qurbāni (Eid).
16. If you know how to make Dhibaḥ (slaughter) then it is Sunnah to do it yourself, if not you should be present during the Dhibaḥ.
17. The animal should be laid down towards the Qibla and you should also face the Qibla, and with a sharp knife, whilst saying the Takbīr, you should slaughter it so swiftly that the 4 vessels must be severed. Do not use excessive force, as this causes unnecessary pain.
18. It is preferable to tie both the forelegs and one hind leg of the Qurbāni animal during Dhibāḥ and untie it after the Dhibāḥ.
19. If the animal is a camel, the Sunnah method is to make it stand, and to strike it with a spear close to the chest on the throat by proclaiming the Takbīr; and to slaughter it with a knife is Makruh. However even with Dhibāḥ, it will be Ḥalāl. It should be struck on only one part of the throat and not in three different places like many ignorant people say. This method is incorrect and contrary to the Sunnah; and to cause unnecessary pain is Makrūh.
20. If the animal is not cold (completely dead), do not remove the skin or any parts of the body.
21. After performing the Qurbāni, make Dua for your Ḥajj and the Ḥajj of all the Muslims to be accepted.
22. After making this Qurbāni, men should sit facing the Qibla and have their hair removed. This is called Ḥalaq. This is of great excellence. If not removed, have the hair trimmed. To remove the hair of women is Ḥarām. All they need to do is to trim the hair equal to one finger joint.
23. Whether removing the hair or trimming it, one should start from the right side and say
الله أكبر الله أكبر لا اله إلا الله و الله أكبر الله أكبر و لله الحمد
Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar Lā ilāha illal lāhu Wallahu Akbar – Allahu Akbar Wa lil lāhil Ḥamd
‘Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, There is none worthy of worship but Allah; And Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, And For Him is All Praise’
Also say the same (as above) after you have completed removing the hair. Thereafter make Dua for the forgiveness of all Muslims.
24. Bury all the hair that has been trimmed or remove Make a habit to always bury the hair, nails etc. which you remove from your body.
25. Here, do not trim your nails or shape the beard line (i.e. to clean the cheek area of the face) before removing your hair.
26. Now, to have sexual intimacy with your wife, to touch her with desire, to embrace her and to kiss her etc. is permitted. In other words, in Iḥrām, you were only allowed to look at her, but now all that which was ḥarām in Iḥrām, has become Ḥalāl.
27. It is more virtuous on this date (the 10th), to proceed for the Farḍ Ṭawāf to Mecca, which is known as Ṭawāf- e-Ziyārah. It is preferable to go by foot with complete Ṭahārat and properly covered. In this Ṭawāf however, there is no Idhtibā’.
28. If those performing Ifrād and Qirān have already made Raml and Sa`ī in the Ṭawāf-e-Qudūm and if the one performing Tamattu` has already performed Raml and Sa`ī in any Nafl Ṭawāf after wearing the Iḥrām of Ḥajj, or if they performed only Sa`ī, then they should not perform Raml and Sa`ī in this Ṭawāf, but if Raml and Sa`ī were not performed, or if only Raml was performed, or the Ṭawāf in which this was done was that of `Umrah, like the first Ṭawāf of the Qārin and Mutamatti`, or if the Ṭawāf was done without Ṭahārat (ablution), then in these 4 situations, Raml and Sa`ī must be performed in this Farḍ Ṭawā
29. If the old and the weak women are not able to proceed for Ṭawāf on the 10th, they should do so on the 11thas this is the next most virtuous day, and the benefit on this day is that the Maṭāf is usually not very crowded. The women will be able to make Ṭawāf comfortably and possibly even get to kiss the Ḥajr e Aswad without difficulty.
30. Those that cannot make it on the 11thshould go on the 12th, and delay without reason after this is a sin. In penalty for this, one must slaughter an animal. However, if a woman is in Ḥayḍ or Nifās (Menstruation or postnatal bleeding), then she may make Ṭawāf after this.
31. After Ṭawāf, 2 Rak`ats prayer must be performed. After this Ṭawāf, your wives also become Ḥalāl upon you. Ḥajj has been completed, as its second pillar was this Ṭawāf.
32. To spend the 10th, 11thand 12thnights in Minā is Sunnah. Neither should it be spent in Muzdalifa, nor in Mecca or on the way. Thus, those who have made Ṭawāf on the 10th or 11th, should return to Minā after the completion of Ṭawāf, and spend the night in Minā.
33. On the 11th, after listening to the Khutbah of the Imam, once again go for Rami (pelting of Jamrah). During these days commence with Rami from the Jamrah e Ula, which is close to Masjid-e-Khayf and in the direction of Muzdalifa
To perform this Rami, approach from the direction of Mecca and stand on a hill, since this place is higher compared to Jamrah e `Uqba. Face the Ka`ba, throw 7 stones at the Jamrah in the prescribed manner which has been explained earlier, and make Dua. In Dua, raise the hands in a manner whereby the palms are facing the Qibla, and recite Dua, Durūd, Dhikr, etc.
In doing this, spend at least the amount of time it would take to complete 20 Āyats (verses of the Qur’an), or the amount of time in which a quarter Pāra (Juz) or Sūrah Baqarah can be recited.
34. Then proceed to the Jamrah e Wusṭā and follow the same procedure.
35. Then proceed to Jamrah e `Uqba, but here do not wait after Rami. Depart immediately after Rami. On your return from here, make du`ā.
36. Follow the very same procedure and perform Rami at all 3 Jamrahs on the 12thas well. This should be done after Zawāl. On this date, some people perform the Rami before noon and then depart from there. This is contrary to our actual Madhhab and is a weak narration.
37. After completion of Rami on the 12th, one has the option of departing to Makkatul Mukarramah before sunset. However, to leave after sunset is regarded as being flawed (i.e. incorrect). In the latter condition, meaning if one stays after Maghrib, then one will have to stay one more day. In other words, one must make Rami accordingly on the 13thjust after noon, and then depart to Mecca. This is more virtuous. Most people however, depart on the 12th, so there is only a small group of people that remain here for a night and day.
38. Ḥalaq refers to the removing of the hai This is not permissible before making Rami.
39. In accordance with the actual ruling, the Rami on the 11th and 12th before noon is not the proper procedure.
40. The following are Makrūh (defective) in Rami:
(a). to make Rami on the 10th, after noon
(b). to make Rami on the 13th, before noon
(c). to throw huge stones in Rami
(d). to break big stones and use its pebbles for Rami
(e). to use the stones lying under the Jamrah for Rami, as these are cursed stones. Those that are accepted are lifted away to be kept on the scale of good deeds on the day of Qiyāmah. If not, a mountain would be formed around the Jamrāt.
(f). to throw Na Pāk (impure) stones
(g). to throw more than 7 stones
(h). to go against the prescribed direction for Rami
(i). to stand closer than 5 hand lengths from the Jamrah. There is no harm in standing further.
(j). to pelt the Jamrahs in the wrong sequence.
(k). to keep the stones near the Jamrah, instead of throwing them at it.
41. On the final day, in other words on either the 12th or 13th day, when departing from Minā to Makkatul Mukarramah, stop at ‘Wādi-e-Muḥaṣṣab’, which is close to Jannat-ul-Ma`lā. Here, either disembark or while seated on your transportation, spend some time in making Dua and Durūd etc. It is more virtuous for you to read your Ṣalāhs right up to `Isha over here. Thereafter, take a short nap, and then enter Makkah Mu`aẓẓamah.
42. Now, after the 13th, for as long as you remain in Mecca, perform `Umrah for your Pīr (Shaykh/Murshid), Ustādh, Parents, and especially for Sayyiduna Rasūlullah ﷺ, his Companions, his Noble Family, and Huzūr Ghawth e A`ẓam رضي الله عنهم. Perform as many `Umrahs as possible. To do this, go to Tan`īm, which is North of Makkatul Mukarramah, in other words, 3 miles away in the direction of Medina Ṭayyibah. There, you may tie the Iḥrām of `Umrah as explained earlier. Then return to Mecca, perform Ṭawāf and Sa`ī accordingly; thereafter remove the hair or have a trim. This will complete an `Umrah. The person, who has already performed `Umrah and wishes to perform a second `Umrah on the same day, should just run the blade on the head. This also applies with regards to a person who does not have any hair naturally.
43. Do not be deprived of completing the recitation of the Holy Quran at least once in Makkatul Mukarramah.
44. Make Hāziri (i.e. present yourself) at Jannat ul Ma`lā and make Ziyārat of Umm ul Mu’minīn Hazrat Sayyidatuna Khadījatul Kubrā رضي الله عنها and all those resting in this Holy Cemete
45. Also try attaining the special blessings, by visiting the sacred place where the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ was born.
46. Make Ziyārah of Hazrat `Abdul Muṭṭalib and do not visit the grave of Abu Ṭālib. Also in Jeddah, do not visit the lengthy grave which people have made of Hazrat Ḥawwa رضي الله عنها as there is no evidence of this being her grave.
47. Remain in the service of the true `Ulamā’, and more importantly, remain in the service of the Learned and Pious Scholars of Dīn. Amongst the learned scholars present there are Hazrat Maulana Abdul Haq Ṣaḥib Muhājir Allahabadi who resides close to the Hamidia Mahal and who is full of compassion especially towards the Muslims who come from India; Hazrat Shaykh ul Ulama Maulana Muhammad Sa`īd Bābusīl; Hazrat Shaykh ul A’ima Maulana Ahmad Abul Khayr Marwa, whoresides close to Safa; Hazrat `Imād us Sunnah, Maulana Shaykh Ṣāliḥ Kamāl who resides close to Bāb us Salām; Hazrat Sayyid Isma`īl Efendi, who is the Curator of the Ḥaram Library in Masjid-ul-Harām Sharīf, and all other such personalities رضي الله عنهم. [All the personalities mentioned in this list have already passed from this world. Remember them in your Duas and of possible visit the proper Sunni Saḥīḥul `Aqīda `Ulamā’ who are there]
48. To be blessed with the opportunity to enter the Holy Ka`ba is a great blessing. If one obtains this opportunity in a permissible way, then enter the Ḥaram e `Ām. However, this is not something for the weak and nervo It is also not allowed for women to try to enter the Ka`ba in such a massive crowd. Even if you are safe from any discomfort, it may cause discomfort to others. This is not permissible and there is no feeling in this kind of Hāziri (Presence). (Nowadays), it is very difficult to enter without giving or taking something, and in this circumstance, to give or take is both ḥarām (i.e. to give a bribe or receive the same for being allowed entrance). Though one may receive the opportunity (of a lifetime) to fulfill a desirable act by way of this it is still regarded as being Ḥarām. If you do not obtain the opportunity for this, then be satisfied with the opportunity of entering into the Ḥaṭīm, for this is sufficient. We have mentioned earlier that the Ḥaṭīm is part of the sacred ground of the Ka`ba. Thus entrance into the Ḥaṭīm is entrance into the Ka`ba. If, however, you do obtain the opportunity in a permissible manner to enter the Ka`ba, then with total submission, bow your head, and in the fear of Almighty Allah, say Bismillah and enter with the right foot. Go close to the front wall and stand 3 hand lengths away from it. There you should perform 2 Rak`ats of Nafl Ṣalāh in the non-Makrūh time, since that is the Muṣalla of Rasūlullah. You should then place your face against the walls and be engrossed in Dua, Durūd, Dhikr, etc. Similarly, with total humility and submission, go to the 4 corners and make Dua, and embrace the pillars and beg for the acceptance of your Ḥajj. In this same manner lowering your gaze, come back and do not look around aimlessly. Hope for immense blessings whilst there and while you exit; for Allah says, “He who has entered this House has received safety (Protection from Allah).” ‘And Praise be to Allah’
49. The leftover candles that the Khuddām (those serving the people in Ḥaramayn Sharīfayn) give here and in Medina should not be taken. You should rather take your own candles, light them there and then take with you what is remaining.
50. When you intend to depart, perform ‘Ṭawāf-e- Widā` (The Farewell Ṭawāf), without Ramal, Sa`ī and Iḍtibā`, as this is Wājib upon all those who live outside (the boundaries of Mecca). Then perform 2 Rak`ats of prayer at Maqām e Ibrāhīm. However, there is no ‘Ṭawāf -e-Widā`’ for women who are in Ḥayḍ (menstruation) or Nifās (postnatal bleeding).
51. Then, in the prescribed manner, proceed to the Well of Zam-Zam where you should again drink the Zam-Zam and rub it onto the body.
52. Then stand at the door of the Ka`ba and kiss this Holy Place. Continuously make du`ā for acceptance of your Ḥajj and recite Du`ā e Jāmi`.
53. Then proceed to the Multazam and hold the Ghilāf (Covering) of the Ka`ba. Here make du`ā, Dhikr, and Durūd in abundance.
54. Then go to Ḥajr e Aswad and kiss it. If you are able to, then shed tears when kissing the Ḥajr-e-Aswad (In other words, cry to Almighty Allah).
55. Then depart from the Ka`ba walking backwards, in other words facing the Ka`ba. If not, continuously turn and look at the Ka`ba with hope. On departing from the Ka`ba, weep or show a sad face, and then approach the Door (of Masjid ul Ḥarām). First exit with the left foot, by reciting the prescribed du`ā, and the best Door to exit from is the ‘Bāb ul Hazūra’.
56. Women who are in Ḥayḍ and Nifās should stand at the Door of the Ḥaram, make Dua and look with hope at the Ka`ba.
57. As per your means, spend on the Faqīrs (mendicants) of Mecca Mu`aẓẓamah and direct your thoughts towards the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ.
و بالله التوفيق
SECTION 6: Offences & Penalties
The explanation in regards to this topic is very extensive and this booklet is very brief and the time is limited. If the manner of Ḥajj which has been explained in this book is adhered to correctly, then Inshā Allah, Almighty Allah will protect you from any offences or penalty.
Note: In this section, the term ‘Dam’ will refer to either one sheep (i.e. ram) or goat. The term ‘Budnah’ will refer to one camel or cow. All these animals should conform to the same conditions as required for a normal Qurbāni animal. In some instances, only unit of Ṣadaqa becomes due. (The unit of Ṣadaqa is equal to ½ Ṣa` [2.047 kg] of wheat or 1 Ṣa` [4.094 kg] of barley or dates, or its equivalent in price)
Case/Issue: An act for which Dam is owed, and if this offence occurs due to some illness, intense heat, intense cold, an injury, a wound, or due to injury or harm by lice etc., then these offences are known as ‘Ghayr Ikhtiyāri’ (i.e. involuntary or unintentional offences). In this case, the offender has the option of either giving Dam, or instead of this, to give 6 orphans a single Ṣadaqa each; or to keep 3 fasts. If Ṣadaqa is commanded because of an action that was done involuntarily under duress, then he has the option to keep one fast in lieu of the Ṣadaqa.
These are the Rules Pertaining to Offences and Penalties:
1. If sewn clothing or clothes dyed with a fragrant dye was worn for one full day and night, or if it was worn continuously, then Dam is wājib (compulsory). If it was worn for less than one day and night, or even for one moment, then one unit of Ṣadaqa should be given.
2. If one wore it during the day and then removed it at night because of the intense heat; or if he wore it at night because of the cold and then removed it during the day with the intention of not wearing it again, but then still wore it again on the next day, it will be regarded as a second offence. The same ruling will apply depending on the amount of times he wears it.
3. If he wore it (sewn clothing) due to an illness, then for as long as the illness remains, it will be regarded as a single offence. If this illness has definitely subsided and another illness appeared and there is a need for him to wear it during this illness as well, then, in this case, it will still be regarded as a second offence, but it will be Ghayr Ikhtiyāri (i.e. involuntary).
4. If, during an illness, there is a need to wear clothing from head to toe (i.e. to cover the entire body), it is only counted as one Ghayr Ikhtiyāri offence. However, in a case where one only needed to wear a single item, such as if one only needed to wear a turban and he wore a Kurta (tunic/shirt) as well; then in this case there are 2 offences. The penalty for the turban is Ghayr Ikhtiyāri and the one for the kurta is Ikhtiyāri.
5. If a man covers his entire head or quarter of his head, or if a man or women covers the entire face or quarter of the face for one day and one night or more than that continuously, there is one Dam due. If less than a quarter was covered for one day and one night or for longer than this continuously, then there is one Dam due. If a quarter or less than a quarter of the face or head was covered for one day and one night or less, then one unit of Ṣadaqa is due. If less than a quarter was covered for less than one day, it is a sin, but there is no Kaffārah (penalty) for it.
6. If one used an amount of fragrance such that when people notice it, they regard it as being substantial, even though it was put on a small portion of the body or even if a little was rubbed onto a large portion of the body (like the head or the face etc.) then Dam is due. If a little fragrance was used on a small portion of the body, then the penalty is one unit of Ṣadaqa.
Case/Issue: Fragrance is usually applied on the sacred Ḥajr e Aswad, and if whilst kissing it in the condition of Iḥrām, a substantial amount rubs onto the mouth (or face), then Dam is due. If only a little rubs on, then there is one unit of Ṣadaqa due.
7. If thin mehndi (henna) was used to dye the hair, and the hair was not hidden (i.e. covered by it), then there is one Dam due. If it was applied thickly and more than one day and one night passed, then for men there are 2 Dams (i.e. one for applying this fragrant item on an entire area of the body, and the second is for leaving it on for longer than one day and night), and if was kept on for less than one day and a night, then for a male there is one unit of Ṣadaqa and one Dam due (The Dam is for applying the fragrant item and the Ṣadaqa is for leaving the head covered for less than a day and night). For women, in both cases there is only one Dam due (The Dam is simply because of applying the fragrant item. There is no Dam for covering the hair as this is essential for her).
8. No matter how much fragrance is used on the body in one sitting, it is regarded as a single offence. If it is applied in different sittings, then each will be regarded as a new offence.
9. If small amounts of fragrance were applied to different portions of the body, but the total amount, if gathered, is sufficient to cover an entire part (limb) of the body, then there is one Dam due, otherwise only one unit of Ṣadaqa is due.
قيدت بي لأن الطيب الكثير لا يتقيد بكمال العضو فتنبه
This restriction has been stipulated because in the case of substantial fragrance being used, it cannot be restricted to just that entire part. So pay attention (in this regard).
10. If scented Surmah/Kuḥl was used thrice or more than thrice, then one Dam is due. If not, then one unit of Ṣadaqa is due.
11. If one ate some fragrant item (i.e. something that is itself a perfume), and it touched (i.e. affected) most of the mouth, then Dam is due. If not, then one unit of Ṣadaqa is due.
12. If a fragrant item (as mentioned above) was put into food during cooking (and the fragrant item) then disappeared, there is no problem. If, however, the bits and pieces of the fragrant item are predominant, then it is in the same ruling as that which applies to eating a fragrant item (as mentioned above). However, if the food portion is predominant, then the general books (of Fiqh) have mentioned absolutely that there is no penalty. However, if the smell is overwhelming, then it is an abomination (i.e. it is objectionable/Makrūh).
13. If a fragrant item was mixed into some drinking item, then if the portion of the fragrant item is stronger, or if one drank from it thrice or more than thrice, Dam is due. If not, then one unit of Ṣadaqa is due.
Case/Issue: To smoke a blend of tobacco is undesirable, but it is neither disallowed nor is there any penalty for this.
14. If one removed a quarter or more of the hair on the head or beard in any way, then Dam is due. If less was removed, then one unit of Ṣadaqa is due.
15. If the hair is very thin, or the hair of the beard is very light (i.e. there is only a light growth of hair), then it will be seen if the hair is equal to quarter of that area or not.
16. Similarly, if hair was removed from different parts, it will be combined to see if it makes up quarter.
17. If all the hair on the body was removed in one sitting, it is only regarded as a single offence. If it is done in different sittings, then each one is an individual offence.
18. If the mustache is removed, even though it is the entire mustache, there is only unit of Ṣadaqa due.
19. If the neck hair and hair from under one armpit is removed, then Dam is due. If it is less, and it amounts to half or more than half, then there is one unit of Ṣadaqa due. This rule applies to pubic hair as well. The rule of quarter being equal to all is only applicable in the case of the hair of the head and the beard.
20. Even if the hair of both armpits is removed, there is only one Dam due.
21. With the exception of the hair on the head, the beard, the armpits, and pubic hair, the penalty for removing any other hair on the body is one unit of Ṣadaqa.
22. The ruling in regards to shaving off the hair, trimming it, pulling it with tweezers and/or to use hair removers etc. is the same. In other words, the same ruling applies to all.
23. If a woman trims from the entire head or from a quarter portion of the head hair equal to even one finger joint, there is Dam due, and for less than this, there is one unit of Ṣadaqa due.
24. Hair that falls of whilst performing Wuḍū, combing, or whilst scratching will cause the full Ṣadaqa to be due (Even in this case, the ruling is regarding one sitting. In other words, if one or all the hair breaks off in one sitting, there is only one unit of Ṣadaqa due, and if it occurs in different sittings, then there will be a separate unit of Ṣadaqa for each sitting in which it occurs). Some (Jurists) have mentioned that one handful of grain or one piece of Roti (bread) or one prune must be given as Ṣadaqa for every hair that breaks if it is up to 2 or 3 strands of hair.
25. If hair falls off without you touching it, or if due to any illness even all the hair falls off, there is no penalty.
26. If all the nails of one hand and one foot are clipped, or if all 20 are clipped at once, then there is one Dam due. If all five nails of any hand or feet are not clipped, there is one unit of Ṣadaqa due for every nail that has been clipped. This means that if only 4 nails each were clipped for each of both hands and each of both feet, then one should give 16 units of Ṣadaqa, except in the case where the Ṣadaqa becomes equal to the value of one Dam. In this case, you should give slightly less than that amount.
27. If, in one sitting, the nails of one hand and one foot were clipped, and in another sitting, the nails of the other hand and foot were clipped, then there are 2 Dams due. Similarly, if the 4 were clipped separately in 4 sittings, then there will be 4 Dams due.
28. If a nail had broken, and it does not have the ability to grow, and one removed the rest of it, then there is no penalty.
29. To kiss, touch, and embrace (your wife) in a state of arousal will cause one Dam to be due, even if there was no seminal discharge. If it was not done in a state of arousal, there is no penalty.
30. There is no penalty in looking at the private ornaments of the body, even though it may cause seminal discharge. However, this is Makrūh (disapproved).
31. If seminal discharge occurs due to masturbation, there is Dam due. Otherwise it is Makrūh. (It must be noted that masturbation is not permitted at any time, be it in Iḥrām or out of Iḥrām. It is forbidden)
32. If the entire or most of the Ṭawāf e Farḍ was performed in the state of Janābat, Ḥayḍ, or Nifās, there is ‘Budnah’ due, and if it was performed without Wuḍū, there is Dam due. In the first case, it is wājib (compulsory) to repeat this Ṭawāf with Ṭahārat; and in the second case, to repeat it is Mustaḥab.
33. If more than half the circuits were done without Ṭahārat, there is one unit of Ṣadaqa due for every circuit.
34. (a) If the complete Ṭawāf e Farḍ or part of it was not done by foot, but was done sitting, or whilst riding or whilst being carried by someone without a valid reason;
34. (b) or if it was performed without the proper Satr e `Awrat, in other words without covering the prescribed parts of the body, for example if quarter of a females wrist or quarter of the hair on her head was left uncovered;
34. (c) or if one performed Ṭawāf in the incorrect direction by walking with the Ka`ba to your right;
34. (d) or whilst in Ṭawāf if he passed through the Haṭīm;
34. (e) or if he performed it after the 12th, then in all 5 cases, Dam must be given.
35. If less than 4 circuits of a Ṭawāf were not done at all, then there is Dam due, and if it was done after the 12th, then there is one unit of Ṣadaqa due for every circuit.
36. With the exception of Ṭawāf e Farḍ, if any other Ṭawāf was done in the state of Janābat, Dam will be due, and if it was done without Wuḍū, one unit of Ṣadaqa will be due.
37. If any Farḍ or other Ṭawāf etc. was done in an improper manner, which caused Kaffārah to become necessary, then once it has been fulfilled correctly, one will be absolved of the Kaffārah (penalty). After the 12th, with the exception of the Ṭawāf e Farḍ, any shortcoming in any other circuit cannot be repeated as this is not possible. The 12th has already passed.
38. To make Ṭawāf in impure clothing is Makrūh, but there is no penalty.
39. If 4 or more circuits of Sa`ī were completely omitted without a valid reason; or if it was done sitting on an animal etc. then there is Dam due, but the Ḥajj is valid. If less than 4 were omitted, then one unit of Ṣadaqa must be given for every circuit missed.
41. If one performed Sa`ī before performing Ṭawāf, he should repeat the Sa`ī. If he does not repeat it, Dam will become necessary.
42. If, on the morning of the 10th, one did not make Wuqūf at Muzdalifa without a valid reason, then there is Dam due. However, if a weak person or a female does not do so due to a fear of facing difficulty, there is no penalty.
43. If Ḥalaq was not done in the Ḥaram, or if it was done outside the boundaries of the Ḥaram, or if it was done after the 12th, then there is Dam due.
44. If Ḥalaq was done before Rami, there is Dam due.
45. If those doing Qirān or Tamattu` make Qurbāni before Rami, or Ḥalaq before Qurbāni, there is Dam due.
46. If Rami was not made at all on any of the days without a valid reason, or if the Rami of one day was completely left out, or most of it was not done, for example if one threw up to 3 stones on the 10th or if one threw up to 10 stones on the 11th; or if the Rami of one day was completely left out or most of if it was not done, and it was then done on the next day, then in these cases, there is Dam due. If the Rami of a particular day was done on the night that follows, then there is no penalty.
47. If less than half the Rami of any day was done, for example, 3 were thrown on the 10th and on another day, 10 were completely left out, or if a person threw them on the another day, then the penalty is one unit of Ṣadaqa for every stone (pebble). If the value of the (combined) Ṣadaqa is equal to that of a Dam, then a bit less should be given.
48. If a person in Iḥrām removed the hair or trimmed the nails of another person who is also in Iḥrām, he should give Ṣadaqa, and that Ṣadaqa or Dam will be based on the explanation that we have already given earlier. If he is not in Iḥrām, then he should give some Khayrāt (optional charity), even if it is a handful of something, and that is really not much.
49. If you dressed someone in sewn clothing, or applied fragrance to him, in a manner whereby it did not touch you, then there is no penalty for this. It will however be regarded as a sin. If he was in Iḥrām as well, then as per our explanation, he will either give Dam or Ṣadaqa.
50. If one had sexual intercourse before Wuqūf e `Arafāt, the Ḥajj is not valid. He must complete the entire rituals of Ḥajj and then give a Dam, and the very next year he must return and repeat the Ḥajj. If the female was in Iḥrām as well, then the same applies to her. It is more appropriate that from the time of tying the Iḥrām of Ḥajj, up to the final days, they should both stay separately whereby they do not see each other if there is the risk of them falling into this bad situation. Ḥajj will not be invalidated by being intimate after the Wuqūf. However, if this was done before Ḥalaq and Ṭawāf, then one must give a ‘Budnah’. If they were intimate between both (i.e between Ṭawāf and removing the hair), then Dam should be given, but even in this case it is better to give Budnah. If intimacy takes place after both (Ṭawāf and removing hair), then there is no penalty.
51. In `Umrah, if one had sexual intercourse before 4 circuits of Ṭawāf, the `Umrah will become invalid and Dam must be given. The `Umrah must then be repeated. If it is done after 4 circuits, then one must still give Dam, but the `Umrah will be valid.
52. If you killed a louse on your body or clothing, or you threw it off, then for 1 louse, give a piece of bread. For 2, you should give a handful of grain and if they were more than 2, then you should give Ṣadaqa.
53. If you washed your hair or clothing, or left your clothing out in the sun with the intention of killing lice, the ruling regarding the penalty is the same which applies to killing it.
54. Similarly, there is a penalty if another person killed a louse on him because he pointed it out to him or gestured towards him (to kill it), even though the other person may not have been in Iḥrām.
55. To kill a louse which has fallen on the ground, or to kill it on the clothing or body of someone else, does not require a penalty, even though the other person may be in Iḥrām as well.
Case/Issue: Where one Dam or Ṣadaqa has been instructed, in the case of one performing Qirān, it is doubled (i.e. the Qārin will give 2).
Case\Issue: The Qurbāni of Kaffārah (penalty/expiation) or the Shukrāna (show of gratitude) of the persons in Qirān and Tamattu` cannot be made outside the Ḥaram. One is permitted to partake from the Qurbāni which he has offered for Shukrāna and a wealthy person may partake in it as well. However, the Qurbāni for Kaffārah is only the right of the needy.
Advice: Penalty is for an offence that occurs forgetfully, or while asleep, or under duress. One will be absolved after the penalty is paid. This is not in the case when one commits any offence intentionally without any valid reason, and then says that he will just pay the penalty to compensate for it. The penalty will have to be paid, but it is a severe sin to intentionally act contrary to the Command of Almighty Allah. و العياذ بالله تعالى
Allah bless us with the Tawfīq to be obedient, affording us the opportunity to make the Ziyārah of Medina. Āmīn
SECTION 7: The Blessed Visit to Madinatul Munawwara, The City of Rasūlullah ﷺ
1. Hāziri at the Sacred Court of the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ is practically Wājib. Some people behave like friends and try to frighten you away from going there, saying there is danger on the way and illness there (Note: This used to happen in those days). Beware! Never listen to any of their comments and do not return with the blemish of being deprived from visiting Medina Munawwara. One has to die one day, why not die travelling to the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ? I personally experienced that if you hold firm to the Dāman (coattails) of Rasūlullah ﷺ, he guides you in his protection and nothing can harm you.
2. When visiting Medina Sharīf, make a special intention for visiting the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ . Imam Ibn Al Hummām states, ‘On this occasion, do not even make the Nīyyah of visiting the Masjid (but instead make the Nīyyah of visiting Rasūlullah ﷺ)’.
3. Throughout the journey, engross yourself in recitation of Durūd and Dhikr
4. When the Ḥaram of Medina is visible, it is better to go on foot. Walk towards it crying, with your head bowed and eyes low;and if possible do so barefoot.
5. When the Holy Green Dome is in sight, recite Durūd and Salām in abundance.
6. When you reach the Blessed City, absorb yourself in the thought of the grandeur and beauty of the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ.
7. Before presenting yourself in Masjid un Nabawi, clear your heart of all thoughts and relieve yourself of all needs which may cause disturbance during Hāziri, and avoid unnecessary conversation. Immediately perform Wuḍū’ and Miswāk. To perform Ghusl is more virtuous.
It is preferable to wear clean white clothing, and if possible wear new clothes. Use fragrance and Surmah/Kuḥl. The preferred fragrance is Musk.
8. Now with total love and reverence, turn towards the Rawḍa e Aqdas If you cannot cry, then make a sad face and force the heart to weep, and ask Sayyiduna Rasūlullah ﷺ from your stone heart.
9. When present at the Entrance of the Masjid, send Durūd and Salām, then wait for a little while as one would wait, in seeking permission to enter from The Beloved Rasūl ﷺ. Say Bismillāh and enter with the right foot, entering with complete respect and reverence.
10. Every Muslim knows in his heart the respect and obligations that are demanded of him at this moment. The eyes, heart, hands, feet, etc. should be free of all other thoughts. Do not be engrossed in the calligraphy and inscriptions of the Masjid. (i.e. all your attention should be focused to Rasūlullah ﷺ)
11. When anyone appears before you with the intention to speak to you, then only speak according to necessity. Do not exceed the need of conversation; keep your heart focused on the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ.
12. Never ever yell or shout out a single thing in the Holy Masjid.
13. Believe with complete conviction, that the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ is physically alive and present just as he was before passing from the world He and all the other Ambiyā’ عليه الصلوة و السلام only taste death for a split second, to fulfill the promise of Allah. Their passing away was simply so that they may be hidden from the eyes of the general public. Imam Muḥammad ibn Al Ḥāj Makki in Madkhal and Imam Aḥmad Qaṣṭalāni in Mawāhib Al Ladunīyyah state as follows:
لا فرق بين موته و حياته صلى الله عليه و سلم في مشاهدته لامته و معرفته باحوالهم و نياتهم و عزائمهم و خواطرهم و ذلك عنده جلي لا خفاء
‘There is no difference in the life and passing away of the Beloved Rasūl ﷺwith respect to seeing his Ummat, his awareness of their states and intentions, and his knowledge of their thoughts. All this is before the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ in a way whereby nothing is actually hidden.’
The great Imam, who is the student of Imam Muḥaqqiq Ibn Al Hummām, in Al Mansak Al Mutawassiṭ, and `Ali Qāri Makki in its commentary Al Maslak al Mutaqaṣṣiṭ state:
(و أنه صلى الله عليه و سلم عالم بحضورك و قيامك و سلامك) اي بجميع احوالك و افعالك و ارتحالك و مقامك
‘… [And that] Rasūlullah ﷺ is aware of your presence, your standing, your salām, i.e. his is aware of all your states, your actions, and your positions.’
14. Now, if the Jamā`at is in progress, then join in, since Taḥīyyat ul Masjid will also be fulfilled in thi If you obtain the opportunity, then perform 2 Rak`ats of Taḥīyyat ul Masjid for Shukrāna (showing gratitude) for being blessed with Hāziri of the Masjid. Read ‘Qul Yā Ayyuhal Kāfirūn’ in the first Rak`at and ‘Qul Huwallah’ in the second Rak`at. Then try to perform Ṣalāh at the place where Rasūlullah ﷺ used to perform his Ṣalāh. If you cannot get this place, try to pray as close to it as possible. After this, perform Sajdah e Shukr and Dua, by saying; ‘O Allah! Afford us the opportunity to truly respect Your Beloved Rasūl ﷺ and bless us with his and Your acceptance’ Āmīn
15. Now at the height of respect, bowing your head, lowering your gaze, trembling in the fear of Allah, perspiring in the shame of your sins, hoping and having faith in the Mercy and Blessing of the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ, present yourself at the feet of the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ . In other words, present yourself before the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ from the eastern part of the Masjid, for the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ is present in His Mazār-e-Anwar, facing the Holy Qibla. Enter from this direction so that the Holy Sight of the Beloved Rasūl ﷺ may be upon you, and this is sufficient for you in both the worlds.
و الحمد لله
16. Now with complete respect, reverence, fear and hope, stand under the chandelier close to the silver peg that is embedded on the southern door of the Ḥujrah-e-Muṭahhara and is in line with the Blessed Face of Rasūlullah ﷺ . (Nowadays it is slightly different, so stand directly in front of the Jāli Mubārak, the one which has one circular opening). Stand at least 4 hand lengths away with your back towards the Qibla and your face towards the Mazār e Anwar and fold your hands like in Ṣalāh. It has been stated in Lubāb, Sharḥ Lubāb, Ikhtiyār Sharḥ Mukhtār, Fatāwa `Ālamgīrī, and other authentic books regarding the etiquette as follows:
يقف كما في الصلوة
Stand (before Huzūr ﷺ) just as you stand in Ṣalāh (This has been stated in `Ālamgīrī and Ikhtiyār)
It is mentioned in Lubāb as follows:
واضعا يمينه على شماله
(Stand respectably) with the right hand folded over the left hand
17. Seriously avoid kissing and touching the Jāli Mubārak, as this is contrary to the ethics of respect. It is better to be more than 4 hand lengths away from the Rawḍa e Anwar. Is it not enough Mercy upon you, that he ﷺ invited you to his Holy Court and allowed you to stand before him? Even though his sight was always upon you everywhere, now the Mercy and Special Blessing is directed especially towards you and this closeness has been bestowed upon you.
18. Alhamdulillah! Now like your heart, your face is also directed towards the Jāli Mubārak of Sayyiduna Rasūlullah ﷺ, the resting place of the Beloved of Allah. Stand with total respect and honor, and with a medium tone, low gaze and with humility, neither with a harsh or loud voice (since to speak aloud in this Court is disrespect and cause for destruction) nor too soft since it is against the Sunnah (even though the Prophet ﷺ is aware of the condition of your heart, just as it was evident from the sayings of the A’imma mentioned above), say the following:
السلام عليك ايها النبي و رحمة الله و بركاته السلام العليك يا رسول الله السلام عليك يا خير خلق الله السلام عليك يا شفيع المذنبين السلام عليك و على الك و اصحابك و امتك اجمعين
As Salāmu `Alayka Ayyuhan Nabiyyu wa Raḥmatullahi Wa Barkātuhu. As Salāmu `Alayka Yā Rasūl’Allah. As Salāmu `Alayka Yā Khayra Khalqillah. Assalāmu `Alayka Ya Shafī` Al Mudhnibīn. As Salāmu `Alayka Wa `Alā Ālika Wa As Aṣ’ḥābika Wa Ummatika Ajma`īn
‘O Beloved Nabi of Allah. Salutations be upon you, and the Mercy and the Blessings of Allah. O Allah’s Rasūl, Salutations be upon you. O the Best amongst Allah’s creation! Salutations be upon you. O Intercessor of the sinners! Salutations be upon you. Salutations upon you, your noble family, your companions and upon the entire Ummah’
19. Wherever possible, send Salāt us Salām in abundance upon Rasūlullah ﷺ. Seek Shafā`at from Rasūlullah ﷺ for your Parents, Teachers, Pīr-o-Murshid (Shaykh), respected ones, friends, relatives and all Muslims.
أسئلك الشفاعة يا رسول الله
As Alukash Shafā`ata Yā RasūlAllah
‘O Allah’s Rasūl! I beg of you your intercession’
20. If someone requested you to pass their salāms, then do so. This is the command of the Shariat. This humble servant is advising and requesting all those who read this booklet to say these words at least thrice when visiting Medina, during my life or after my demise and assist me with this kind favor. Allah will bless you and reward you for it in both worlds:
الصلوة و السلام عليك يا رسول الله و على الك و ذريتك في كل آن و لحظة عدد كل ذرة الف الف مرة من عبيدك احمد رضا بن نقي علي يسئلك الشفاعة فاشفع له و للمسلمين
As Ṣalātu Was Salāmu `Alayka Yā Rasūl’Allah Wa `alā Ālika Wa Dhurrīyyatika Fi Kulli Ānin wa laḥẓatin `adada kulli dharratin, alfa alfa marratin min `Ubaydika Ahmad Raza’bni Naqi Ali, Yas Alukash Shafā`ata Fash Fi’ lahu wa lil Muslimīn
‘O Allah’s Rasūl! Blessings and Salutations upon you, even upon your noble family and companions, equivalent to every atom, hundreds of thousands of times from your humble servant Ahmed Raza, the son of Naqi Ali, and he seeks of you, your intercession. Bless him and all Muslims with your intercession.’
21. Then turn towards your right, in other words towards the East, just a little, and stand before the glowing face of Hazrat Ṣiddīq e Akbar and say
السلام عليك يا خليفة رسول الله السلام عليك يا صاحب رسول الله في الغار و رحمة الله و بركاته
As Salāmu `Alayka Yā Khalīfata Rasūlillāhi. As Salāmu `Alayka Yā Ṣāhiba Rasūlillāhi fil Ghāri Wa Raḥmatullāhi Wa Barakātuh
O Khalīfa of Allah’s Rasūl! Salām upon you. O Companion of Rasūlullah in the Cave! Salām upon you, may the Mercy the Blessings of Allah descend upon you.
22. Then move a little more, and stand before Hazrat `Umar e Farūq and say
السلام عليك يا امير المؤمنين السلام عليك يا متمم الأربعين السلام عليك يا عز الإسلام و المسلمين و رحمة الله و بركاته
As Salāmu `Alayka Yā Amīral Mu’minīn. As Salāmu `Alayka Yā Mutammimal Arba`īn. As Salāmu `Alayka Yā `Izzal Islāmi Wal Muslimīna Wa Raḥmatullāhi wa barakātuh
O Amīr ul Mu’minīn! Salām upon you. O you who completed the number of 40 Muslims! Salām upon you. O Honor of Islam and the Muslims! Salām upon you, and may the Mercy and Blessings of Allah descend upon you.
23. Now move a span more to the west and stand between Hazrat Ṣiddiq and Hazrat Farūq and say
السلام عليكما يا خليفتي رسول الله السلام عليكما يا و زيري رسول الله السلام عليكما و ضجيعي رسول الله و رحمة الله و بركاته أسئلكما الشفاعة عند رسول الله صلى الله تعالى عليه و عليكما و بارك و سلام
As Salāmu `alaykuma Yā Khalīfatay Rasūlillāhi. As Salāmu `alaykuma Yā Wazīray Rasūlillāhi. As Salāmu `alaykuma Yā Ḍajī`ay Rasūlillāhi wa Raḥmatul lāhi Wa Barakātuhu. As Alukumash Shafā`ata `inda Rasūlillahi Ṣall Allahu ta`āla `alayhi wa `Alaykuma wa Bāraka wa Sallam
O both Khalifas of Rasūlullah! Salāms upon you, O both Viceroys of Rasūlullah! Salāms upon you, O both of you who are resting beside Rasūlullah! Salām upon you, and may the Mercy and Blessings of Allah descend upon you. I request both of you to be a Wasīla for me and request intercession for me from the Beloved Rasūl
24. All these Hāziris are places and moments of great acceptance, thus strive in Du It is better to recite Dua e Jāmi` and to engross yourself in recitation of Durūd Sharīf.
25. Now approach the Blessed Mimbar (Pulpit) and make Dua near it.
26. Then proceed to Rawḍa e Jannat (Riyaad ul Jannah, in other words, that area which is between the Mimbar and the Blessed Ḥujrah Mubārak and which has been mentioned as a piece of the Garden of Jannat in Ḥadīth). Here you should perform 2 Rak`ats of Nafl Ṣalāh in the non-Makrūh time and then make du`ā.
27. Likewise, try to pray Ṣalāh near every pillar of the Respected Masjid and ask for du`ā since these are places of blessings, and certain of them have special uniqueness over others.
28. For as long as you are present in Medina Ṭayyibah, do not waste a single breath. With the exception of the two (main) necessities (i.e. using the restroom), spend the rest of your time with Ṭahārat in Masjid e Nabawi. Spend your time there in Ṣalāh, Tilāwat, and Durūd. Worldly affairs should not be discussed in the Masjid, neither there nor anywhere else.
29. Whenever you enter any Masjid, make the Nīyyah of I`tikāf. The Nīyyat is usually written on the door for your benefit:
نويت سنة الإعتكاف
Nawaytu Sunnatal I`tikāf
I make intention for Sunnat of I`tikāf
30. If you have the opportunity of fasting (spending Ramadan) in Medina, especially in the heat, then what a beautiful distinction this is, for it holds a guarantee of intercession.
31. Here for every one good deed, 50,000 (fifty thousand) deeds are recorded, so strive even more in `Ibādat. You should definitely limit your eating and drinking.
32. Try to make at least one Khatam of the Qur’an here and in the Ḥaṭīm e Kaaba (if possible).
33. To look at the Rawḍa e Anwar is `Ibādat, just as it is `Ibādat to look at the Ka`ba Mu`aẓẓamah and the Holy Qur’an, so do this with utmost respect. Also send Durūd and Salām in abundance.
34. Send Salām five times daily or at least in the morning and in the evening, at the Muwājaha Sharīf (Sacred Rawḍa Mubārak).
35. Whenever you are in the City of Medina or outside the City, and your sight falls upon the Sacred Green Dome, immediately turn in its direction, and with hands tied, send Salām with respect. Never pass by without doing this, as it is contrary to the principles of respect.
36. To miss the congregation (Jamā`at) without a valid reason anywhere is a sin, and to do so continuously is a serious major sin and Ḥarām, and here, with the exception of it being a sinful act, it is to be seriously deprived و العياذ بالله تعالى. It has been stated in a Saḥīḥ Ḥadīth that Rasūlullah ﷺ said, ‘Protection from both Hell and hypocrisy has been decreed for one who does not miss 40 prayers in my masjid.’
37. Never ever face your back to the Rawḍa Sharīf. Even in Ṣalāh, you should stand in such a place that you avoid facing your back towards the Rawḍa Sharīf.
38. Do not make Ṭawāf or Sajdah of the Rawḍa e Anwar and do not bow to such an extent that it is equivalent to the position in Rukū`. The respect of Rasūlullah ﷺ is in his obedience.
39. To visit Jannat ul Baqī`, the Plains of Uḥud, and Masjid e Qubā is Sunnat. The Thawāb of 2 Rak`ats of prayer in Masjid e Qubā is equivalent to the Thawāb of one `Umrah. If you wish, you may also remain here. When Sayyidi ibn Abi Jamrah would present himself, he would remain standing in the blessed Court for 2 days continuously. Once he thought of the Ziyārah of Baqī`, etc, and he then said, ‘This Door of Allah has been opened for the beggars. Where can I leave it and go to?’
40. When the time of departing approaches, present yourself in the Sacred Court, and request Huzūr ﷺto bless you time and over again with this blessing of Hāziri. The etiquettes which were followed when departing Mecca should also be applied here. Make dua with a sincere heart by saying: ‘O Allah! Afford me death in Medina Ṭayyibah with Īmān and on Sunnat, and allow me to be buried in the Holy Baqī`. Āmīn
اللهم ارزقنا آمين آمين يا ارحم الراحمين و صلى الله تعالى على سيدنا محمد و اله و صحبه و ابنه و حزبه اجمعين و الحمد لله رب العالمين