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Pre-Requisites of Prayer

Pre-Requisites of Prayer

There are several pre- requisites for the prayer as follows:

Purity, Covering the nakedness, Facing the direction of Qibla, Intention, Time, Takbeer-e Tahreema. Here are some necessary information related to all of them.

First Pre-Requisite : The Purity:

The book of purification is invariably the first subject covered in the books of fiqh. This is because the ulama hold that purification is used as a means to operationalize other means of worship such as ritual prayer. There can be no ritual prayer without purity, so purity is the first thing that must be known. With this fact in mind, there are two types of purity:

(1)Actual purity (طهارة حقيقية)

(2)Ritual purity (طهارة غير حقيقة)

The Actual purity (طهارة حقيقية), which pertains to matters of removing filth from clothing and body, concerning filth, is two types: heavy and light. If heavy filth comes on one’s clothing or body, then it is mandatory (wajib) to remove it if it is the size of a dirham. If it is less, it is excused but better to remove, and if it is more it is obligatory (Fard) to remove it. Prayer must be repeated if the filth on one’s clothing or body is the amount of a dirham or more. By the amount of a dirham, we refer to either the size or weight of a silver coin. If the filth is liquid, such as urine or semen, then the area covered will be considered, which corresponds to the dented area in the middle of the palm of one’s hand. If the filth is solid, then the weight will be considered, which is about the weight of a dollar coin. If the filth is light, then it must be removed if it covers or exceeds one fourth of any part of one’s clothing or body.

The Ritual purity (طهارة غير حقيقة) pertains to issues of wudu, ghusl, and tayammum. There are four obligatory integrals of wudu: to wash the entire face from hairline to chin and earlobe to ear lobe, to wash the arms up to and including the elbow, to wipe at least one fourth of the head, and to wash the legs up to and including the ankle.

The sunah integrals of wudu include washing the hands up to the wrists, gargling, washing the nose, washing each limb three times, wiping the ears, etc.

The obligatory integrals of ghusl are to wash the mouth and nose and to get water over the entire body.

If one does not have access to water, one can perform tayammum to purify oneself. It requires to strike any pure object which is a part of land (i.e. Dirt, sand, rock, clay etc) with both hands twice and to wipe over the face and arms.

Also typically covered in this section are issues of menstrual bleeding (حيض), postnatal bleeding (نفاس), and dysfunctional uterine bleeding (استحاضة).

The minimum time limit for menstruation is three days and its maximum is ten. The maximum time for post-natal bleeding is forty days and it has no minimum. Anything below the minimum or above the maximum is considered dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Menstruation and post-natal bleeding essentially prohibit one from praying, fasting, reading and touching the Quran, entering the masjid, and sexual intercourse. One must make up fasting after completion of bleeding, but not prayers.  Dysfunctional uterine bleeding does not prohibit any of this, though like any other type of bleeding, it breaks one’s wudu until one becomes excused by bleeding regularly, then her wudu breaks through the exiting of the prayer time, not by the bleeding.

(For more details refer to Women section.)

 Second Pre-Requisite: Covering the Nakedness of the Body (Satr-e-Awrat)

Satr-e-Awrat means to cover those parts of the body, which are obligatory (Fard) to cover. There are several essential rulings pertaining to covering the body that must be known:

Law: Satr-e-Awrat (i.e. covering of the nakedness), meaning the essential parts of the body which must be covered is Waajib, be it in Prayer or outside Prayer. This applies whether one is alone or in the presence of others. It is even impermissible to reveal the nakedness of the body when alone, without a valid reason. To cover the body, i.e. the Satr is Fard, in the case of Prayer and whilst in the presence of others. This applies even if one is praying Namaaz alone in a dark room. If one has sufficient amount of clothing to cover the Satr and he still prayed the Prayer naked, then it is unanimously agreed that Namaaz is invalid. However, when a female is alone in the privacy of her room, it is not Waajib for her to cover her entire body, but she must cover at least from the naval to the knees. It is also Waajib for her to cover the stomach and the back etc.when in the presence of those who are her Mahaarim. If she is in the presence of a Ghair Mahram or for Namaaz, even if she is alone in a dark room, it is Fard for her to cover the entire body, except for the five parts, which will be explained further. It is also not allowed for a young female to show her face in the presence of strange males. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.270-272]

Law: The use of such a thin fabric, through which the body is visible, is not sufficient as Satr. If Namaaz was performed in such clothing,it is not valid. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.54]

Similarly if the blackness of a females hair is visible through the sheet (with which she is covering her head), the Namaaz will not be done. [Raza]. Some people wear very thin Saaris (Thin silken fabric used by females) and Tahbands (waistcloth) during Namaaz, which causes the thigh to be visible. The Namaaz of such persons will not be valid. To wear such clothing, which does not comply with the Satr-e-Awrat, is actually Haraam, even when not in Namaaz.

Law: If one is wearing such thick fabric, through which the bodydoes not show, but it is worn so tight that the shape of the body is evident, then Namaaz will be valid in such clothing, but for someone to look towards those parts of the body is impermissible. [Raddul Muhtar]. To wear such clothing in the presence of others is disapproved and not allowed, and this is disallowed to a greater degree for females. This law should serve as a warning for those women who wear such tight pants.

Law: For Namaaz, it is essential to have pure clothing for the Satr(to cover the body). It should not be impure to the extent where it prevents Namaaz. If one had the means of wearing pure clothing but one read his Namaaz in impure clothing, the Namaaz will not be valid. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.56]

Law: If according to a person’s own knowledge the clothes were impure and he still performed Namaaz in it but later realised that it was actually pure, then in this case the Namaaz is still regarded as being invalid. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg. 292]

Law: If outside Namaaz, one wore some impure clothing, there is no harm, even though pure clothing was available and if there are no other clothes available for him to wear then in this case it is Waajib for him to wear those. [Raddul Muhtar & Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.170]. This only applies in the case where the impurity on such clothing has dried up, and does not have the ability of coming off from the clothing and polluting the body. Otherwise, if it has not dried off and pure clothing is available, then to wear such impure clothing in this case is absolutely disallowed, as it means one is causing the body to become impure without any reason. [Raza]

Law: For a male, the Awra (i.e. parts that require covering) are from below the waist up to below the knees. In other words, to cover these areas is Fard. The naval is not included in this but the knees are included. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.271]. Nowadays, people who wear the waistcloth or trousers in such a manner that

parts of the pelvis remain uncovered. If it is covered, by a Kurta (long shirt) etc. in a way whereby the colour of the skin is not visible from underneath it then it is fine; otherwise, it is Haraam, and if more than one fourth of that area is left opened in Namaaz, the Namaaz will not be valid. There are also some fearless people who reveal the knees and even the thighs etc. in the presence of others. This is also Haraam and if one does this habitually, he is regarded as a Faasiq (open transgressor).

Law: The Awrat for free women and for one who is Khunsa Mushkil is the entire body, except for the face, the palms of the hands, and the soles of the feet. The hair hanging from the head, the neck and the wrists are all regarded as Awrat (i.e. in other words to cover these parts is also Fard). [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.271]

Law: If a female wore such a thin head covering for Namaaz, from beneath which the blackness of the hair is visible, the Namaaz will not be valid, unless she covers it with something, which hides the colour of the hair etc. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.54]

Law: For a Baandi (i.e. slave-girl), her entire stomach, back and both sides, and the area between her naval up to below the knees is regarded as Awrat. If a Khunsa Mushkil is a slave then the ruling is also the same. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.271]

Law: If a Baandi was performing her Namaaz with her hair uncovered and her master freed her in the midst of Namaaz, then if through Amal e Qaleel in other words she performs a trivial movement, such as by covering the head with one hand, the Namaaz will be valid, otherwise not. This applies whether she had knowledge of being freed or not. However, if she did not have any such thing available (nearby) with which she could cover her head, the Namaaz will be regarded as being valid. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.271; Alamgiri vol.1 pg.55]

Law: If less than quarter of any limb (i.e. part of the body) which is Fard to be covered is exposed during Namaaz, the Namaaz will be valid; and if a quarter was exposed and one covered it immediately, then in this case, the Namaaz will also be valid. However, if it remained exposed for the duration of one Rukn, i.e. the amount of time it takes to say Subhaan Allah thrice, or if it was exposed intentionally, even though it was covered immediately thereafter, the Namaaz will be regarded as being invalid (in both cases).

[Alamgiri vol.1 pg.55; Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.273] Vol.3 pg.127

Law: If when commencing Namaaz, i.e. at the time of saying Allahu Akbar, one fourth of a limb was uncovered then the Namaaz has actually not even commenced. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.273]

Law: If small portions of few parts (limbs) are exposed, whereby each part that is exposed is actually less than a fourth of that limb, but if all of them were combined, it would be equal to one fourth of the smallest limb that is uncovered then in this case, the Namaaz is not valid. For example, a ninth of a females ear is exposed and a ninth of her shin is exposed then both combined will definitely add upto more than a quarter of the ear area, so in this case the Namaaz will be regarded as being invalid. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.55, Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.274]

Law: The Awrat-e-Ghaleeza (Major Private areas to be concealed) refers to the parts of the body such as the anus and other private parts and the areas adjoining, whereas the rest of the limbs are called Awrat-e-Khafeefa (minor areas to be concealed). The ruling in regards to all of them is the same, i.e. they all need to be covered. The issue of it being a major area that needs to be concealed or a minor area actually refers to the prohibition of looking. In other words, to look towards the parts classified, as Ghaleeza is Haraam (totally forbidden) at a greater degree, such as when one sees someone with his knees exposed, he should caution him with gentleness. If he persists, then do not bicker with him. However, if he is exposing his thigh, then he should be cautioned firmly, and if he persists, do not beat him. However, if a female exposes the area, which is regarded as Ghaleeza then the one who has the power or right to reprimand her, such as her father or the (Muslim) Ruler, then he should reprimand her. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg. 274]

Law: In the case of the Satr, i.e. covering the body, it is not necessary that only your eyes do not fall upon that area; so if someone is wearing only a long kurta and his collar area is open, and if one peers into his collar area, he will be able to see other parts, then in this case the Namaaz will be valid, even though it is Makruhe- Tahreemi to look there without a valid reason. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.274; Alamgiri vol.1 pg.54]

Law: For Satr to be Fard from others, means that the body cannot be seen from all over the place, so (Allah Forbid), if some mischievous person bent and looked at the limbs from underneath, then the Namaaz will not become invalid. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.54]

Law: The limbs that need to be concealed for men and those which are regarded as the Awrat are nine, and Allama Ibrahim Halabi, Allama Shaami and Allama Tahtawi etc. have mentioned eight of which are:

  1. The penis, including all its parts i.e. the head, the perch and the foreskin.
  2. Testes, both these are regarded as one part. If one fourth of only one is exposed, it will not invalidate the Namaaz.
  3. The anus, in other words the area of excretion of faeces.

4&5. Each buttock is regarded as a separate part that needs to be covered

6&7. Each thigh is regarded as a separate part that needs to be covered. The entire area from the groin to the knee is regarded as the thigh. The knee is also included in this and is not counted here as a separate part, so if the knee becomes exposed or if both knees are exposed, then it will still not invalidate the Namaaz, as both combined will still not be equal to quarter of one thigh.

  1. From below the naval up to the base of the penis, and in its direction, the rear and the both sides together are regarded here as one Awrat (i.e. part which must be concealed). Aala Hazrat, the Great Mujad did of the Century presented research proving the area between the anus and the testes is also a separate Awrat (i.e. Part which must be concealed). He counted and presented the rulings in regards to the above mentioned in the form of four couplets.

Law: For free women, with the exception of the five parts, which have already been explained, the entire body is regarded as Awrat and this consists of thirty parts. If one fourth of any of these parts is exposed, the ruling in regards to Namaaz is as mentioned above. Those parts are:

  1. The head, i.e. from the top of the forehead up to the beginning of the neck and from ear to the other ear, in other words on the area which usually has hair growth.
  2. The hair that hangs (from the head).

3&4. Both ears.

  1. The neck. The throat is also included in this.

6&7. Both shoulders.

8&9. Both arms, which include both elbows.

10&11. Both wrists, in other words from below the elbow up to the wrist joint.

  1. The Chest, in other words from under the neck right up to under the extreme ends of the breasts.

13&14. The backs of both hands.

15&16. Both breasts, if they are properly formed (raised). If they are not yet full or if they are only slightly raised, where it does not look like a separate part, then it will be regarded as part of the chest, and will not be counted as a separate part. Even in the first instance, the space in-between both breasts will be counted as part of the chest, and will not be regarded as a separate part.

  1. The stomach, which is from the end of the chest as mentioned, up to the end of the naval area, meaning that the naval is also included as part of the stomach area.
  2. The Back, in other words, the area behind the chest, which is in line with the chest, up to the waist.
  3. The area that is between both shoulders. This is the area from under the armpit, up to the extreme end of the chest, and the space, which is on both sides. Its frontal section falls within the chest area and its rear falls within the shoulders or back. After this, the area, which is on both sides, up to the waist, its frontal area, is part of the stomach area and its rear is part of the back.

20&21. Both buttocks.

22&23. The vagina and the anus.

24& 25. Both thighs. The knees are included in this.

  1. The pelvic area and that which is in line with it, below the naval, and the area parallel to it towards the back, altogether are regarded as one Awrat.

27&28. Both shins including the ankles.

29/30. Both soles of the feet; Some Ulama have also mentioned that the back of the hands and the soles are not counted within the Awrat, i.e. they do not need to be concealed.

Law: Even though the face of a female is not regarded as eAwratf (i.e. part that must be concealed) but due to the risk of temptation it is disallowed (i.e. disapproved) to open the face in the presence of strange males. Similarly, it is impermissible for a non-Mahram to look towards her face and to touch her face is disallowed to a greater degree. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.274] (Detail in this regard is discussed in Volume 16 of Bahaar-e-Shariat).

Law: If a person has no other clothing to cover his nakedness with except for a silk garment, then he should use the same fabric as Satr, and he may perform his Namaaz in it as well. However, if other clothing is available, it is Haraam for males to wear silk clothing, and Namaaz in such clothing is Makruh-e-Tahreemi. [Durre- Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.275]

Law: If a naked person covers his entire body completely including his head, with one full sheet and performs his Namaaz in this state, the Namaaz will not be valid. However, if he removes his head from under the sheet, the Namaaz will be valid. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.275]

Law: If a person has no clothing available to him, he should sit and perform his Namaaz, be it during the day or night, be it inside a house or outside on an open field. One should either sit like one sits in Namaaz. A male will sit in the manner wherein males sit in Namaaz and a female, in the manner of females; or one may sit with the legs stretched out and the hand covering the Awrat-e-Ghaleeza and this is preferred. In place of Ruku and Sujood, one should just gesture, and (in this case) this gesturing is more virtuous for such a person than making the actual Ruku or Sujood. (In such a situation) To sit and read the Namaaz is greater than standing and reading the Namaaz, even if one has to make gestures in Qiyaam for Ruku and Sujood, or if one makes Ruku or Sujood. [Durr-e-Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.275]

Law: If such a person was performing his Namaaz naked, and someone loaned some clothes, or made its use lawful for him, then the Namaaz will be invalidated. He will have to wear the clothing and then repeat the Namaaz from the beginning. [Durr-e-Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.276]

Law: If someone promised to give him some clothing, he should wait until the very last time (of that Namaaz), and if he sees that the Namaaz will not be done on time, then he should perform his Namaaz without clothing. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.276]

Law: If someone else has some clothing with him and there is a predominant likelihood that by asking him, he will give it to you, then in this case it is Waajib to ask for the clothes. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.276]

Law: If one is able to get the clothing for cash, and he has more than the Haajat-e-Asliyah (i.e. that which is required for his absolute necessities). However, if the one selling is asking for an amount, which is not more than the estimated price of those who have estimated it, then in such a case it is Waajib to purchase it. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.276]. Similarly, if he agrees to sell the clothing on credit, it is still Waajib to purchase it.

Law: If he has such clothing, which is completely impure then he should not wear it in Namaaz. However, if one fourth of it is pure then it is Waajib upon him to wear it for Namaaz. For him to perform his Namaaz naked is impermissible.

All this only applies when one does not have any such thing with which the clothing can be cleansed and purified, or which will allow its impurity to become less than the amount of the preventative impurity. If not,  it will be Waajib to purify the clothing or reduce the amount of impurity. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.276]

Law: If a few people are naked, each should read his Namaaz individually, far away from one another and if they performed Jamaat, the Imam should stand in the middle. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.55]

Law: If a naked person finds a grass-mat or some bedding, he should use it to cover himself. He should not perform his Namaaz naked in this case. Similarly, if he is able to cover himself with grass or leaves etc., he should do so. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.55]

Law: If one does not have sufficient clothing for the entire Satr but the clothing is only sufficient for Satr of some parts, then to cover with this is Waajib. One should actually use this material to cover the Awrat-e-Ghaleeza, i.e. the frontal and rear private parts. If the material is only enough to cover one of the private parts, then one should be covered. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.277]

Law: There is no need for one who has performed his Namaaz in such a dire circumstance, to repeat the Namaaz after he has acquired clothing. The Namaaz will be regarded as being valid. [Durr-e- Mukhtar vol.1 pg.277]

Law: If one is not able to get clothing for the Satr or something to purify impure clothing because of some act of the servants (i.e. creation) then in such a case he should perform the Namaaz. Thereafter, (whenever he obtains it) he should repeat the Namaaz. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.277]

Third Pre-Requisite: Istiqbaal-E-Qibla (Facing the Direction of the Qibla)

Istiqbaal-e-Qibla means to face the direction of the Qibla, i.e. The Holy Kaaba.

Law: Namaaz is performed for Allah alone and Sajdah (prostration) is for Allah alone, and not for the Kaaba. If (Allah Forbid) someone makes Sajdah for the Kaaba, then he has committed an act, which is Haraam (i.e. totally forbidden) and Gunah-e-Kabeera (i.e. a major sin). If he did this with intention of worshipping the Kaaba, then he is regarded as a blatant kaafir (unbeliever), as it is kufr (infidelity) to worship other than Allah. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.286; Ifadaat-e-Razviyah]

Law: The Istiqbaal-e-Qibla is general, in the sense of facing the actual Kaaba as is in the case of the people of Makkah Mukarramah, or for others, to face the direction of the Kaaba. [Durre- Mukhtar vol.1 pg.286]. In other words, the research is carried out by the one who is able to specially investigate the actual direction of the Kaaba, even if the Kaaba is covered. As is in the case of the houses in Makkah, where one stands on the rooftop of the house, he is able to see the Kaaba, then in this case, it is Fard to direct the face to the actual Kaaba, and the direction alone without investigation will not be sufficient. As for those who are not able, to research or establish this, even if they are in Makkah Mukarramah, then for such a person to face the direction of the Kaaba is sufficient. [Ifadaat-e- Razviyah]

Law: If one reads Namaaz inside the Holy Kaaba, he may read in whichever direction he wishes. Even if Namaaz is performed in the Roof of the Kaaba, the Namaaz will be valid, but to climb on the roof of the Kaaba is Mumnoo (disallowed/disapproved). [Ghuniya etc] Law: If he only directed his face towards the Hateem-e-Kaaba, whereby the Kaaba Muazzamah does not fall in front of it, then in this case the Namaaz will not be valid. [Ghuniya]

Law: To face the direction of the Holy Kaaba means that some portion of the surface of the face is in the direction of the Kaaba. Hence, if one is somewhat deflected from the Qibla direction, but some part of the face is facing the direction of the Kaaba; the Namaaz will be valid. The fixed angle stipulated in this regard is 45 degrees, so if the deflection is more than 45 degrees from the direction of the Kaaba, the Istiqbaal-e-Qibla will not be valid and the Namaaz will be invalid.

Law: Qibla is not the name of the structure (building) of the Kaaba, but the space within which it (the Kaaba) is situated. The entire space within the vicinity of it, from the seventh earth right up to the Arsh, is Qibla. Now, if the building (of the Kaaba) is removed from its place and put somewhere else and someone performed his Namaaz facing the building where ever it may have been moved to, his Namaaz will not be valid. If the Holy Kaaba had gone for the Ziyaarat (visiting and taking the blessings) of any Wali Allah and one performs his Namaaz facing the space that is the Qibla, his Namaaz will be valid (as the Structure of the Kaaba is not the name of Qibla but Qibla is that space and the Kaaba is erected within its confines). Similarly, if one performed his Namaaz on a mountain or in the depths of a well, whilst facing the direction of the Qibla his Namaaz is valid, because his direction was that of that space which is Qibla, i.e. the area and vicinity of Qibla, even though one did not face the structure (of the Kaaba). [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.290]

Law: One who is incapable and helpless in regards to facing the Qibla, i.e. of making Istiqbaal-e-Qibla, such as in the case of being ill to the extent where he does not have the energy to face the direction of Qibla, and there is no one else there who can direct him towards Qibla; or in the case where he is in the possession of personal valuable or if he has been entrusted by some other person to safeguard some valuables, and he knows for sure that if he faces the Qibla it will be stolen; or if he is floating on a ships plank and he knows that by changing direction to face Qibla he will sink; or if he is riding a disobedient animal which will not allow him to dismount, or if he dismounts, he will not be able to re-mount it again without the help of someone; or if he is an old person and will not be able to mount the animal himself, and there is also no one available to assist him to mount it, then in all the above mentioned situations, one should perform ones Namaaz in whichever direction one is able to, and there is also no need to repeat such Namaaz. However, if one has the ability to halt the animal, he should try to do so, and if he is able to direct his face towards Qibla, he should attempt to do this as well. If even this is not possible, he should perform his Namaaz however, he is able to. If there is a risk of him losing sight of the travel group if he stops, then in this case as well, there is no need to halt the animal (i.e. conveyance). In such a situation, one may perform Namaaz whilst in motion. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.290]

Law: If one is performing his Namaaz on a ship which is already sailing, he should face the direction of Qibla when performing Takbeer-e-Tahreema (i.e. saying Allahu Akbar to commence Namaaz), and he too should change direction as the ships changes course, even if he may be performing a Nafil Namaaz. [Ghuniya pg.223]

Law: If a Musalli has in possession valuables, and he is sure that they will be stolen if he faces the Qibla, then in such a situation, if he is able to find a person to guard his valuables, even if it means paying him the Ujrat Mithl, i.e. the current general wage, he should do so, and to face Qibla is Fard (in this case). [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.290]

This ruling applies if the amount being demanded in payment is surplus to his fundamental necessary requirements, i.e. Haajat-e- Asliyah, or if the person guarding the valuables agrees to being paid later. If the person is demanding cash payment for this duty and one does not have sufficient cash, or if one does have cash but it is not surplus to his Haajat-e-Asliyah, or if the person is demanding more than the current general wage, then there is no need to secure the services of such a person, for this purpose. One may perform his Namaaz as he can. [Ifadaat-e-Razviyah]

Law: If a person has been captured or imprisoned and his captors do not allow him the privilege of facing the Qibla, he may perform his Namaaz in whichever direction he can. Then, if he gets the time to perform it within the fixed time of that Salaah or even afterwards, he should repeat it. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.290]

Law: If a person is at such a place where he is not able to establish the direction of Qibla, as he is not able to locate any indication in regards to Qibla direction, or if there is no Muslim there who is able to show him the Qibla direction, or if there is no Masjid or Mehraab etc. at such a location, or if the sun, moon or stars have not as yet appeared, or even if they have appeared, he does not possess the relevant knowledge to establish Qibla by way of them, then the ruling in regards to such a person is that he should practice Taharri, i.e. he should deliberate in regards to the direction of Qibla, and he should face that direction which his heart firmly settles on as being the direction of Qibla. [General Books]

Law: If after performing Namaaz by practising Taharri, one realised that he did not really face the Qibla direction, then in such a case, there is no need to repeat the Namaaz. [Tanweerul Absaar vol.1 pg.291]

Law: If such a person performs his Namaaz in just any direction without practising Taharri, his Namaaz will not be valid, even though he had actually faced the Qibla direction. However, if after Namaaz, it was confirmed without doubt that he had faced the correct Qibla direction; then in this case, the Namaaz will be valid. If after Namaaz, he assumes that it was Qibla, but is not certain, or if whilst in the midst of Namaaz he became aware of that direction being Qibla, the Namaaz is not valid. [Raddul Muhtar & Durr-e- Mukhtar vol.1 pg.292]

Law: If he deliberated and his heart was content with a certain direction being Qibla, but he still faced some other direction, his Namaaz is invalid, even though the direction that he might have been facing was actually the correct Qibla direction. This ruling even applies in a case, where after the Namaaz he confirmed for sure that

it really was Qibla. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.292]

Law: If there is such a person present who is aware of the Qibla direction, but one performed Namaaz by assuming the direction without asking him; then in this case, if one was actually facing the correct Qibla direction, the Namaaz is valid, otherwise not. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.290]

Law: If you enquire regarding the direction of Qibla from such a person who is aware of the direction of Qibla. However, he refuses to inform you of the direction, and you practiced Taharri and performed your Namaaz, but afterwards, the said person informed you in regards to the Qibla direction, the Namaaz is still valid and there is no need to repeat it. [Muniya pg.100]

Law: If there are Masjids and Mehraabs present at that location, but one did not give any credence to this. However, he directed himself to another direction based on his own opinion, or if the stars etc. are visible and he has the relevant knowledge to establish Qibla by way of them, but does not do so, and merely performed his Namaaz based on deliberation. Then in such a case, if he performed his Namaaz in the incorrect direction, the Namaaz will be invalid in both cases. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.291]

Law: If a person is performing his Namaaz, facing a particular direction, which he chose based on deliberation (Taharri), in this case it is not permissible for another person to follow him. He too should practice Taharri on his personal capacity. If he did not practice Taharri and just followed the other person (in regards to Qibla direction), his Namaaz is invalid. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg. 291]

Law: If one was performing his Namaaz on the basis of Taharri and whilst in Namaaz, even if it is in Sajdah-e-Sahw, his view (regarding Qibla) changed, or he realised that he was mistaken, then in this case, it is Fard for him to immediately change direction, and there is no harm to those (Raka’ats) which he has already performed. Similarly, if he performs all 4 Raka’ats facing four different directions (as his view changed in each Raka’at), it is permissible. If on changing his view, he did not turn immediately and a delay of longer than one Rukn takes place, i.e. the time it takes to say Subhaan Allah thrice passes, the Namaaz becomes invalid. [Durr-e- Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.291]

Law: If a blind person was performing his Namaaz whilst facing the incorrect direction and if an able-eyed person arrived and aligned him correctly (to Qibla). Then followed him (as a Muqtadi), in this case, if there was such a person present from whom the blind person could enquire in regards to Qibla, but failed to do so, then the Namaaz of both persons is invalid. If there was no such person present there, from whom he could have enquired, then in this case, the Namaaz of the blind person is valid and the Namaaz of the ableeyed person is invalid. [Khania, Hindiya vol.1 pg.60; Ghuniya pg.224; Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.291]

Law: If one was performing his Namaaz whilst facing a direction other than Qibla, based on Taharri, and he later realised his error and then turned towards Qibla. Then any such person who is aware of the said persons initial condition, and if his condition is also similar in the sense that he too practiced Taharri regarding this direction and he too realised his error, then in such a case, he is permitted to follow such a person, otherwise not. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.291]

Law: If the Imam1 and Muqtadis2 were performing Namaaz in the same direction, based on Taharri and the Imam completed the Namaaz and turned Salaam; but now the view (in regards to Qibla) of the Masbooq and the Laahaq has changed, then in this case, the Masbooq should change his direction and the Laahaq should start Namaaz afresh. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.291]

Law: If the Imam is performing Namaaz in the correct direction based on Taharri from inception, then even if the Muqtadi is not amongst those practising Taharri, he may follow the Imam in this case. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.291]

Law: If ones initial decision was made regarding a particular direction then after commencing Namaaz ones opinion changed, so he turned towards that direction; then either in the third or fourth instance, he reverted to the initial opinion; then again, he should turn to that direction. There is no need in this case for him to start afresh. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.291]

Law: If one practiced Taharri and had just read one Raka’at, when his judgment changed in the second Raka’at, and he now remembers that he left out one Sajdah of the previous Raka’at, then in this case, he should start the Namaaz afresh. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.292]

Law: If on a dark night, a few people practiced Taharri in Jama’at and performed Namaaz in different directions but as it was during Namaaz, they did not realise that their direction is contrary to the direction of the Imam and nor are the Muqtadis in front of the Imam, then in this case the Namaaz will be valid. If after Namaaz, they realised that their direction was different from the direction of the Imam, there is still no harm and if either in Namaaz or after Namaaz one finds out that one was in front of the Imam, the Namaaz is invalid. [Durr-e-Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.293]

Law: If the Musalli intentionally turned his chest away from Qibla, even if he then immediately reverted to Qibla, his Namaaz is invalid; if he turned away and the gap in-between does not exceed that of 3 Tasbeehs (i.e. duration of saying Subhaan Allah thrice), the Namaaz is valid. [Muniya pg.101, Bahr vol.1 pg.298]

Law: If only his face was turned away from Qibla, it is Waajib upon him to immediately turn his face towards the Qibla direction and this will thus not invalidate his Namaaz. However, to do this without valid reason is Makruh. [Muniya pg.101, Bahr vol.1 pg.285]

Fourth Pre-Requisite: Waqt – Time

The laws related to this pre-requisite have already been explained in the earlier discussion pertaining to time.

Fifth Pre-Requisite: Niyyat . Intention

Law: Niyyat (intention) refers to the resolved intent of the heart. Merely knowing it is not counted as Niyyat, until such time that there is no resolved intent. [Tanweerul Absaar vol.1 pg.278]

Law: Credibility is not given to that which is uttered by the tongue, i.e. audibly in regards to Niyyat. In other words, if one intended to pray Zuhr Namaaz, but one uttered the word Asr with the tongue, the Namaaz of Zuhr will be done. [Durr-e-Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.278]

Law: The weakest degree of intention is that if one enquires from you which Namaaz you are performing, you should be able to immediately respond without any hesitation at all. If ones condition is such that he has to think before answering, then the Namaaz will be invalid. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.278]

Law: It is Mustahab to say the Niyyat with the tongue (audibly). To mention the Niyyat in Arabic is not a condition. It can be said in Farsi (Persian) etc. (i.e. in language of your choice). However, the words of intention must be in the past tense, such as; Nawaytu or I have intended. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.278]

Law: There is greater caution for the Niyyat to be present when saying Allahu Akbar (i.e. when making Takbeer-e-Tahreema). [Muniya pg.110]

Law: If the Niyyat was made before the Takbeer, and no such action which is a hindrance to Namaaz, and which is not part of Namaaz was committed between the Niyyat and the time one commenced Namaaz; such as eating, drinking or speaking etc., the Namaaz will be valid, even if the Niyyat was not present (i.e. current) at the time of Tahreema. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.279]

Law: If one performed Niyyah before Wudu, the Wudu is not regarded as an act that is foreign (to Namaaz), so Namaaz will be done. Similarly, if one made Niyyah after Wudu and walked for Namaaz, then this walking will not be regarded as an act that is foreign, and it will not be regarded as a separating factor, so the Namaaz in this case will thus be valid. [Ghuniya pg.253]

Law: If the Niyyat was made after commencing Namaaz, it will not be accepted; to the point that if one proclaimed the Niyyah during the Takbeer-e-Tahreema by proclaiming it after Allahu and before Akbar, the Namaaz is not valid. [Durr-e-Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.279]

Law: The proper and correct ruling is that for Nafil, Sunnat and Taraweeh, just the absolute intention of Namaaz is sufficient, but it is advisable (better) to mention the word Taraweeh in Taraweeh, to mention the Niyyat of Sunnat of the time, to make the intention of Qiyaam-ul-Layl for Qiyaam-ul-Layl. In the other remaining Sunnats, it is advisable to mention the Niyyat for Sunnat or the intention of following the practice of Nabi ., as some Masha’ikh regard simply Niyyat (of Namaaz without stipulating which type of Namaaz) as not being sufficient. [Muniya pg.106]

Law: In Nafil Namaaz, the absolute intention of Namaaz is sufficient, even if the word Nafil is not mentioned in the intention. [Durr-e- Mukhtar vol.1 pg.279]

Law: When performing the Fard Namaaz, it is also necessary to make the intention of Fard. Merely making the absolute intention of Namaaz or Nafil etc. will not suffice. In the case where one does not have any knowledge in regards to it being Fard; such as in the case where he reads he five daily Salaah, but he does not have knowledge regarding its Fardiyat (i.e. it being mandatory and obligatory prayer), then in this case Namaaz is not valid, and it is Fard upon him to make Qaza of all such Salaahs, except in the case where he performs them behind the Imam and in the intention he says, I am reading whatever Namaaz the Imam is performing; then in this case, his Namaaz will be valid. In the case where he has knowledge of it but he does not make any distinction between the Fard and the non-Fard, there are two situations; (1) If he makes Niyyah of Fard in all the Raka’ats, the Namaaz will be valid but if he already read the Sunnats in such Salaahs where the Sunnat is before the Fard, then he is not permitted to make Imamat because by reading the Sunnats with the Niyyat of Fard, his Fard has been discharged. For example, if he read the four Sunnats of Zuhr before the Fard, with the intention of Fard, then he cannot make Imamat for the Fard Salaah (as his Fard has been discharged). (2) If he did not make the Niyyat of Fard for any of the Raka’ats, then in this case, the Fard will not be discharged. [Durr-e-Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1pg.280]

Law: When reading Fard Namaaz, it is also necessary to make Niyyah of that particular Namaaz (i.e. to make Niyyah for Fard of Zuhr or Fard of Asr etc.) or for example to say the following in the time of that particular Namaaz, I have made Niyyat for the Zuhr of today or to say, I have made Niyyat for the Fard of this present (current) time. However, in the case of Jummah, the Niyyah of Fard of the current time is not sufficient. For Jummah, one must make the specific Niyyat for Jummah. [Tanweerul Absaar pg.282]

Law: If a person made the Niyyat for Fard-e-Waqt (i.e. the Niyyat of that time, such as in the case of Zuhr) and the time of that particular Namaaz had already expired, then in such a case, the Namaaz is not done, even if he is aware or not of the time expiring. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.282]

Law: In Fard Namaaz, to merely make the Niyyat, I am reading the Fard of today is not sufficient; unless a particular, Namaaz has not been stipulated, such as The Zuhr of today or The Esha of Today [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.282]

Law: It is Aula (best and most appropriate) to make this Niyyat, I am reading a certain Namaaz of today (i.e. words stipulating the Name of the Namaaz where the word certain has appeared, meaning one can say either Fajr or Zuhr or Asr etc.). Even if the time of that Namaaz expires, it will be regarded as being discharged, especially for one who suspects that it is outside the fixed time. [Durr-e- Mukhtar vol.1 pg.283; Alamgiri vol.1 pg.61]

Law: If a person mistook that day for some other day; for example, if it is a Monday and he mistook it for a Tuesday and made Niyyah for the Zuhr of Tuesday, later he realised that it was actually Monday, then in this case, the Namaaz will be done and valid. [Ghuniya pg.251] This applies if the words of today (or todays Zuhr etc.) are in the Niyyat because after stipulating this, the use of the words Monday or Tuesday etc. is futile and error in this is not harmful.

However, if he only used the name of the day in the Niyyat and he in the Niyyat he did not intend with the words of today. For example; in the case where he merely said, eI have intended for the Zuhr of Tuesday then in this case the Namaaz will not be valid, even if that day was Tuesday, as there are many Tuesdays. [Ifadaat-e-Razviyah]

Law: It is not necessary to stipulate the number of Raka’ats in the Niyyat. However, it is Afdal (of greater virtue) to do so; so in the case of an error in the number of Rakafats, such as if one made Niyyat for 3 Raka’ats of Zuhr (instead of 4), or he made Niyyat for 4 Raka’ats of Maghrib (instead of 3), the Namaaz will still be valid. [Durr-e-Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.281]

Law: If the Fard becomes Qaza then it is necessary to stipulate the day or the Namaaz. It is necessary to say Certain Namaaz of Certain Day (i.e. Zuhr Namaaz of Tuesday). Just mentioning Zuhr etc. or Qaza Namaaz is not sufficient. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.280]

Law: If one has only made one Namaaz Qaza then there is no need to stipulate the day etc. It is sufficient to say, I have intended to pray the certain Namaaz for which I am liable. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.281]

Law: If a person has made many of his Namaaz Qaza, and he does not know, which days or which dates Namaaz (are Qaza). Then the simple manner for him to make Niyyat is for him to say, I have intended to pray my very first or very last particular Namaaz which, I have missed, i.e. if it is for a Zuhr and he has numerous Zuhrs which are Qaza. He should say I have intended to pray my very first Zuhr which I have missed, or he can say, I have intended to pray my very last Zuhr which I have missed, or for which I am liable. [Durr-e- Mukhtar vol.1 pg.281]

Law: If a person was liable for the Namaaz of a Sunday and he thought it was for Saturday and he performed it with this Niyyat and afterwards realised that it was for Sunday, then this Namaaz is not done. [Ghuniya 251]

Law: There is no need to stipulate Qaza or Ada in the Niyyat. If Qaza was read with the Niyyat of Ada or Ada with the Niyyat of Qaza, the Namaaz is done. In other words, if there is still time remaining for Zuhr, and he thought that it has expired, and he read Zuhr of that day with the Niyyah of Qaza; or if the time had already expired and he thought that there was still time remaining and made Niyyat of Ada, then in this case, the Namaaz is still regarded as valid. If he did not do this, but the time is remaining and he read with the Niyyat of Qaza of Zuhr, but he did not stipulate it as the Zuhr of that day, the Namaaz is not valid. Similarly, if he was liable for the Zuhr of a certain day and he completed a later prayer (i.e. Asr) with the Niyyat of Ada then it is not valid. [Durr-e-Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.283]

Law: It is also necessary that the Muqtadi makes Niyyat to follow the Imam. However, it is not necessary for the Imam to make Niyyat to lead that Muqtadi, in order for the Namaaz of the Muqtadi to be valid. If the Imam in his intention says, I am not the Imam of a certain person and that person followed him, the Namaaz of that Muqtadi will still be valid; but if the Imam does not make the Niyyat of Imamat, the Thawaab of Jama’at will be lost. To obtain the Thawaab of Jama’at, it is not necessary to intend it before the Muqtadi joins the Jama’at, but he can also do this when the Muqtadi is joining. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.62; Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.282]

Law: There is one condition wherein it is regarded as necessary as per consensus, for the Imam to make Niyyat of Imamat. This is in the case where the Muqtadi is a female, who stands near a male, and that Namaaz is not Namaaz-e-Janaazah; then in this case, if the Imam did not make Niyyat for Imamat of a lady, i.e. to lead a female in Namaaz, then the Namaaz of the female is not valid. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.285] In this case, the Imam has to have intended this in the beginning of the Namaaz. Even if he makes the intention afterwards it will not suffice for the validity of a female to follow him (in prayer)1. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.285]

Law: In the case of Janaazah Namaaz, the rule is absolute, whether she is near a male or not, it is unanimously agreed that (if such a case does present itself), then there is no need to make intention to lead a female. The correct ruling is that it is also not necessary (if this happens) in Jummah or Eidain. In the other Salaahs, if she is not near a male, then her Namaaz will be done, even if the Imam did not make the Niyyat of Imamat for her. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.285]

Law: If the Muqtadi merely made Niyyat of the Namaaz of the Imam or Fard of the Imam and he did not make the intention of Iqtida, i.e. of following him, the Namaaz is invalid. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.62]

Law: If the Muqtadi made the Niyyat, I am reading whichever Namaaz the Imam is reading with the Niyyat of Iqtida, then it is permitted. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.62]

Law: If a Muqtadi make the following Niyyat, I am commencing that Namaaz which is the Namaaz of this Imam then in this case, if the Imam has already commenced his Namaaz, then it is obvious that Iqtida with this Niyyat is permissible. However, if the Imam has not yet commenced his Namaaz, then in such a case, there are two

situations;

(a) If the Muqtadi knows that the Imam has not as yet commenced, then in this case, after he commences, the Muqtadis initial Niyyat is sufficient.

(b) If the Muqtadi assumes that the Imam has commenced his Namaaz, but he has actually not commenced his Namaaz yet then in this case, the initial Niyyat is not sufficient anymore. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.62]

Law: If the Muqtadi made Niyyat of Iqtida but in the Fard, he did not specify the Fard, then the Fard is not valid. [Ghuniya pg.249] In other words, unless he does not say, I am the Muqtadi of the Imam in his Namaaz (i.e. I am following the Imam in his Namaaz).

Law: If in Jummah, the Muqtadi merely made intention of following the Imam in his Namaaz and did not intend Jummah or Zuhr, his Namaaz is still regarded as valid, whether the Imam led Jummah or Zuhr. If one made intention of Iqtida for Zuhr and the Imam’s Namaaz was Jummah, then has neither Zuhr nor Jummah been done.

[Alamgiri vol.1 pg.62]

Law: If the Muqtadi joined whilst the Imam was in the Qa’da (sitting position) and he is not sure if it is Qa’da-e-Ula (the first Qa’da) or Qa’da-e-Aakhira (the second Qa’da), and he makes intention by saying that if it is the first Qa’da, then I make Niyyat for Iqtida, otherwise not. Then in such a case, even if the Imam is in Qa’da-e-Ula, the Iqtida is

not regarded as being valid. If he made Iqtida with this Niyyat, that if he is in Qa’da-e-Ula, I make Iqtida of Niyyat in Fard, otherwise, I make Niyyat of Nafil; then in this case, even if the Imam is in Qa’dae- Ula, the Fard will not be fulfilled (by such an intention). [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.63]

Law: Similarly, if he found the Imam in Namaaz and he is uncertain whether he is performing Esha or Taraweeh, and he followed by saying that if it is Fard, I have made Iqtida and if it is Taraweeh I do not, then in this case the Iqtida is not valid, be it Esha or Taraweeh. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.63] He should make Niyyat of Fard, because if it is really the Fard Namaaz then his Fard will be discharged and if it is not it will become Nafil for him. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

Law: If the Muqtadi made Niyyat (to follow) as soon as the Imam stood on his Imamat position, then even if the Niyyat was not prevailing at the time of the Takbeer, the Iqtida is valid. This is on condition that he did not do any such thing, which is not associated to Namaaz (from the inception of his Niyyat up to the time of the Takbeer). [Ghuniya pg.450]

Law: In making Niyyat of Iqtida, it is not necessary to know who the Imam is, i.e. whether it is Zaid or Amr (i.e. one person or another), and if in the Niyyat he said, Behind this Imam and in his knowledge it was Zaid but later realised it was Amr, then in such a case his Iqtida is valid. However, if he did not say Behind this Imam or Behind this person but he specified only by mentioning the name, such as by saying, behind Zaid and then later he realised it was Amr, then in this case the Namaaz is invalid. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.62; Ghuniya pg.450]

Law: In the case of Jama’at-e-Katheer (i.e. unprecedented mass congregation), the Muqtadi should not specify the Imam (by name) in the Niyyat. Similarly, in Janaazah, one should not say, I make Niyyat for the Namaaz of the particular deceased (i.e. by name, if there are many Janaazahs). [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.63]

Law: The Niyyat for Janaazah Namaaz is, I have intended Namaaz for Allah and Dua for this Mayyit (deceased). [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.283]

Law: If the Muqtadi is in doubt as to whether the deceased is male or female, he should say, I make Namaaz with the Imam, upon (the deceased) whom the Imam is making Namaaz on. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.284]

Law: If one intended the Namaaz of a male and it was later realised that it is a female or it was the other way around, it is not permissible (i.e. invalid), unless he mentions (in his Niyyat) that he is performing Namaaz of the Janaazah that is present. Similarly, if he intended Janaazah of Zaid and later realised it was Amr, his Namaaz is not valid. If he said, I have intended for (Janaazah Namaaz) of this deceased and he thought it was Zaid but later realised that it was Amr then Namaaz is done. [Durr-e-Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.284]

Law: Similarly, if he thought it was a male and later found out it was a female or the other way around, the Namaaz will be valid if he used the words, this deceased in the Niyyat of Namaaz. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.284]

Law: If one performed few Janaazahs at once, it is not necessary to stipulate the number of deceased. If he stipulated the figure and they were more than the figure stipulated by him, then none of the Janaazahs have been done. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.284] In other words, this in the case where he does not gesture regarding the Janaazahs present, for example, if he says, I have intended for the Namaaz upon ten deceased and there were actually eleven, then in this case none have been done. However, if he says, I have intended for Namaaz over these ten deceased and there are twenty, then in this case, all are done. These rules are applicable to the Imam who leads the Janaazah Namaaz. The negative aspect as explained regarding stipulating the number of deceased only without

gesturing by saying these will apply to the Muqtadi as well. If his intention was not, I have intended the Janaazah Namaaz of those over whom the Imam is reading, because in this case, if he thought they were ten and they were actually more, then even his Namaaz will be valid for all. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.284]

Law: When reading a Waajib Namaaz, one should make Niyyat for Waajib and it must also be stipulated, i.e. he should stipulate whether it is the Namaaz of Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Adha, Nazr (fulfilling a vow), Namaaz following a Tawaaf, or such a Nafil which he intentionally broke (because the Qaza of such a Nafil also becomes Waajib).

In Sajdah-e-Tilaawat it is also necessary to stipulate the Niyyat but when it is done immediately in Namaaz then Niyyah should also be made for Sajdah-e-Shukr (Sajdah to show gratitude to Allah) even if it is Nafil, i.e. one should make this Niyyat, I am making Niyyah of Sajdah-e-Shukr. This applies to Sajdah-e-Sahw as well. (Sajdah made as amends for errors in Salaah. This will be explained later in detail). In Durr-e-Mukhtar it states that to stipulate the Niyyat for Sajdah-e- Sahw is not necessary, but in Nahr Al Fa’aiq, it is mentioned as being necessary and this seems to be more obvious. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg. 281] If in the case of Nazr, the vows are many, then intention is required for each one individually, and in Witr Namaaz, merely the intention of Witr is sufficient, even if the Niyyat of it being Waajib is not added to it. To make the intention of Waajib is Aaula (better and more virtuous). However, if the intention is one which is contrary to Waajib (prayer) then it is insufficient. [Durr-e-Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar Vol.1 pg.281]

Law: In Niyyat to say, I am facing the direction of the Qibla is not a condition. However, it is necessary that conflict to Qibla should not be in the Niyyat. [Durr-e-Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.285]

Law: If one commenced Namaaz with the intention of Fard and during the course of Namaaz, he thought that it was Nafil and thus completed it as Nafil; the Fard is valid. If he commenced with Niyyat of Nafil and during the course of Namaaz he thought it was Fard and thus completed it as Fard, the Nafil has been done (and not the Fard). [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.62]

Law: If after commencing one Namaaz, one made Niyyat for a second Namaaz and if this was done with a fresh  Takbeer (proclaiming Allahu Akbar), then the first has been invalidated and the second has commenced. If this is not the case, then it is still regarded as being the initial Namaaz which he first intended, even if both these are (with intention) of Fard, or the first is Fard and the second is Nafil, or if the first is Nafil and the second is Fard. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.62; Ghuniya 247] This is in the case where the Niyyat is not uttered again with the tongue; otherwise, the first one will become invalid in any event. [Hindiya vol.1 pg.62]

Law: If after one Raka’at of Zuhr, he again made Takbeer with the Niyyat of the same Zuhr, then it is the same  Namaaz and the first Raka’at will be counted, so if he makes the Qa’da-e-Aakhira it will be valid, otherwise not. Even here, if he makes the Niyyat (again) by uttering it with his tongue, the first Namaaz will become invalid and that (preceding) Raka’at will not count. [Alamgiri vol.1 pg.62, Ghuniya pg.248]

Law: If in his heart, he intended to break the Namaaz, but he did not say anything with the tongue, he is regarded as being in Namaaz. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.296] This is as long as he does not do anything that nullifies the Namaaz.

Law: If one makes Niyyat of two Salaahs together, there are a few circumstances in this regard: If amongst them (both the Namaaz), one is Fard-e-Ain and the other is Janaazah Namaaz then the Niyyat for the Fard is the valid one. If both are Fard-e-Ain and one is within its appointed time and the time for the other Namaaz has not started yet, then the one which is in the appointed time is done. If one is in the appointed time, the second is Qaza, and there is not sufficient time remaining, then too, the Niyyat of the appointed time Namaaz is valid. If there is sufficient time remaining, then neither has been done. If both are Qaza, then the first one is for the one who is Saahib-e- Tarteeb, and if he is not Saahib-e-Tarteeb, then both are invalid. If one is Fard and the other is Nafil, the Fard is done. If both are Nafil, then both are, and if one is Nafil and the other is for Namaaz-e- Janaazah, the one for the Nafil Namaaz is valid. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.294; Ghuniya pg.247]

Law: If one commenced Namaaz solely for the pleasure of Allah and (Allah forbid), the Namaaz was tainted by Riya e(for show and to be applauded), then in this case credence will be given to the beginning, i.e. he will be given benefit because he commenced it for the pleasure of Allah. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.294; Alamgiri vol.1 pg.63]

Law: Actual Riya (to do something for show) is when one only reads (Namaaz) because he was in the presence of people, if not he would not have read (his Namaaz). If the case is such that when alone he reads but not as sincerely, and in the presence of people, he reads with more sincerity (i.e. with more dedication), then in this case he will get the Thawaab for (fulfilling) the actual Namaaz and no Thawaab will be obtained for his (so-called) sincerity. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.294; Alamgiri vol.1 pg.63] Riya is punishable in any event.

Law: If in the course of performing Namaaz with (true) devotion and sincerity, he noticed people and felt that Riya will creep in, or if he was about to start his Namaaz and he felt the threat of Riya creeping in, then in such a case, he should not omit the Namaaz due to this, but he should perform his Namaaz and then make Istighfar (seek forgiveness from his shortcomings). [Durr-e-Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.294]

The sixth pre-requisite is Takbeer-e-Tahreema (i.e. proclaiming the Allahu Akbar to commence the Namaaz).

There are numerous Ahadith which confirm that Huzoor-e-Aqdas commenced Namaaz by proclaiming Allahu Akbar.

Law: In Janaazah Namaaz, Takbeer-e-Tahreema is a Rukn (basic element of the Namaaz) and for all the other Salaahs, it is a condition (i.e. pre-requisite). [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.297]

Law: In a Namaaz, other than Janaazah Namaaz, if a person proclaims Takbeer-e-Tahreema whilst having some impurity, but before completing Allah Akbar, he discards it, the Namaaz will be established. Similarly, if at the time of  Takbeer-e-Tahreema the Satr (nakedness of the body) was revealed, or if he was not facing Qibla, or if the sun was at its zenith, and by way of Amal-e-Qaleel (negligible movement) and before completing the Takbeer, he covered his Satr, faced towards the Qibla, or if the sun descended from its zenith, Namaaz has been established. Similarly (Allah forbid) if a person without Wudu fell into a river and before water can pass over the parts which need to be washed in Wudu, he commenced Takbeer-e-Tahreema, but before completing the Takbeer, all the parts were washed, then in this case Namaaz will be established. [Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.297]

Law: One is permitted to start a Nafil Namaaz with the Tahreema of Fard. For example, after the completion of the Four Raka’ats of Esha, if he stands up for the Sunnats, without turning Salaam. However, to do this with intent is Makruh (unadvisable) and disallowed, and if it is not done with intent, then there is no objection. For example, if he

performed the 4 Raka’ats of Zuhr and entered into Qa’da-e-Aakhira, then thought he had only read 2 Raka’ats, so he stood up and then even made Sajdah of the fifth Raka’at and then realised he had already ready 4 Raka’ats; in this case the fifth Raka’at becomes Nafil. He should add one more Raka’at to make it 2 Raka’ats, and since this

formation was not intentional, there is no defect in it. [Durr-e- Mukhtar & Raddul Muhtar vol.1 pg.297]

Law: One is allowed to establish (i.e. start) one Nafil based on another Nafil. The establishment of one Fard on another Fard or on a Nafil cannot be done. [Durr-e-Mukhtar vol.1 pg.297]