Table of contents:
The Five Times Prayers are Obligatory (فرض) upon every Muslim who is sane and mature. They stablished as one of the five pillars of Islam.
Categories of prayers
The prayers are classified into five categories as follows:
1: Fard Prayers: The five times daily prayers are Fard, they must be established in their respective time-frames daily. They are فجر (Fajr)to pray two raka’at after dawn before sunrise. Zuhr (ظھر) to pray four raka’at after mid-day till the shadow of anything becomes double of it. Asr (عصر) to pray four raka’at thereafter before sunset. Maghrib (مغرب) to pray three raka’at after sunset before white twilight disappears. Isha (عشآ) to pray four raka’at thereafter before dawn.
2: Wajib prayers: Witr prayer comes next to Fard in terms of importance and must also be established. It is Wajib to pray three raka’at وتر after Isha prayer before dawn. It is Haram to miss any one of these prayers and if missed any way one have to do Qada (make them up)
3: Sunan Muakkadah. It is emphasized to pray two raka’at before Farj prayer in Farj time, four raka’at before Zuhr prayer and two raka’at after Zuhr prayer in its time. Two raka’at after Maghrib prayer, and two raka’at after Isha prayer. They come after فرض/ واجب in importance, but it is blameworthy to leave them without an excuse.
4: Sunan Ghair Muakkadah, They are non-emphasized Sunnahs, it is مستحب (recommended) to perform two raka’at after Zuhr, four raka’at before Asr, four raka’at before Isha and two raka’at after Isha. If he leaves them no sin, but better not to leave.
5: Nafl (voluntary prayers), After the above mentioned prayers it is up to one to pray two or more raka’at any time other than Makrooh time. Nafl prayer will cause him extra rewards but no problem if he leaves them. There is no Qada if 3,4,5 missed.
The Pre-Requisite Conditions of the Prayer
For validity of prayer some things are required before beginning any prayer.
(1)Purity: One must have purity from all major and minor impurities. Also his wearing and place of prayer must be free from impurity.
(2) Covering of nudity: One’s nakedness must be covered, which is from naval to knee for men, and whole body except face, two palms and two feet for women.
(3) Facing towards the direction of Qibla: One must face the direction of Qibla.
(4) Valid time: One must pray within the respective time frame.
(5) Intention: One must have intention for the particular prayer that he is going to pray.
(6) Takbeer-e-Tahreema : One must say (Allah u Akbar) to begin the prayer.
The Pillars of the Prayer
For validity of a prayer some things required as pillars, if any one of them missed the prayer will be invalid. They are as follows:
(1) قیام :To stand unless one unable to stand.
(2) قراءۃ :To recite at least one ayat from Holy Quran
(3) رکوع: To bow down till the hand reaches to the knee once in each raka’at
(4) سجود To Prostrate twice in each raka’at placing forehead on the ground.
(5) قعدہ اخیرہ : To do last Sitting the amount of reading “Tashahhud”
(6) خروج بصنعہ : To exit the prayer to conclude it.
Compulsory parts (wajibaat) of the Prayer
There are some parts of the prayer which are compulsory (wajib) to perform for completion of the prayer. If any one of them is missed forgetfully then Sajda-e-Sahw is required at the end for completion of the prayer, and if missed on purpose then the prayer will be held with defect Makrooh-e-Tahreemi, and will be compulsory (wajib) to repeat it. One must know these wajibaat in detail as follows:
(1) To say Allahu Akbar for Takbeer-e-Tahreema.
(2) Recitation of Surah Fatiha (all 7 ayaat)
(3) To connect with Surah Fatiha at least a short surah or one verse long enough to be equal to 3 short verses.
(4) Being this connection in the first two rakahs of Fard prayer and in all rakaat of other prayers.
(5) To Recite Surah Fateha before the Surah.
(6) To recite Surah Fatiha only once, not twice in each rakah.
(7) There shall be no strange action between Surah Fateha and other surah. To say Ameen at the end of Surah Fatiha is supplementary to Surah Fateha and to say بسم اللہ In the beginning of other Surah is supplementary to it.
(8) To go into Rukoo immediately after completing the recitation without any delay.
(9) Tadeel-e-Arkaan, in other words to remain in Rukoo, Sujood, Qauma and Jalsa at least for the duration of saying “Sub’haan Allah” once.
(10) To be in Qauma (To stand upright after returning from Rukoo),
(11) To Place the nose and forehead on the ground during each sajdah.
(12) To be in Jalsa (To sit upright between the two sajdas)
(13) The first sitting (قعدہ اولی) even in the Nafl prayer.
(14) To recite the entire Tashahhud in the first sitting (قعدہ اولی) and in the last sitting (قعدہ اخیرہ) if someone leaves even one word of Tashahhud it will be considered leaving the wajib.
(15) To not add anything after the Tashahhud in the first sitting (قعدہ اولی) in all Fard, Wajib and Sunnah-Muakkadah prayers, in other words: to rise for the third raka’at after Tashahhud without any delay.
(16) To Say Salam (سلام) to exit the prayer is Waajib. (to sayعلیکم /Alaikum is not wajib)
(17) To Recite Dua-e- Qunoot in Witr prayer.
(18) To say Tabeer for Dua-e-Qunoot.
(19) To recite additional six Takbeers in both Eid al Fitr and Eid al Adha prayers.
(20) To say Takbeer for Rukoo in the second Raka’at during both the Eid prayers.
(21) To say Allahu Akbar for all these wajib takbeeraat.
(22) For the Imam to recite Qur’an loudly in first two raka’ats of Maghrib, Isha, and in all raka’ats of Juma, Eidain, Taraweeh, Witr during Ramadan.
(23) For everyone to recite Qur’an silently in Dhuhr and Asr prayers, and after first two raka’ats of Maghrib and Isha.
(24) every fard and wajib action of the prayer must be performed in its correct sequence and order.
(25) Rukoo in every Rakah shall be performed once only.
(26) Sajda in each Rakah must be done twice only.
(27) The sitting (قعدہ) shall not be performed before the second rakah. Also in the four rakah prayer the sitting (قعدہ) shall not be performed at the third raka’ah.
(28) To perform Sajda-e-Tilawat(سجدہ تلاوۃ) if any Ayat-e-Sajida has been recited.
(29) To perform sajdah sahw (سجدہ سھو) if there has been any such error which requires Sajda-eSahw to be performed.
(30) There shall be not pause equal to length of saying three tasbeehs (i.e سبحان اللہ) between any two fard actions, or any two wajib actions or between a fard and a wajib action.
(31) When the Imam recites the Qur’an be it loudly or softly the follower (مقتدی) shall remain silent at that time.
(32) with the exception of the recitation (قراءۃ) the follower (مقتدی) shall follow the Imam in all wajib actions.