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Hajj & Umrah

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Hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Makkah and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims to be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of carrying out the journey, and can support their family during their absence. It is one of the 5 pillars of Islam.

Conditions that make Hajj Mandatory

Hajj will be mandatory upon any person with whom these conditions are found:

  1. He/She is a Muslim.
  2. He/She is Baligh (Islamically Mature).
  3. Sanity.
  4. Health (His/Her limbs of the body are in working state).
  5. He/She can bear the travel expense and is able to travel. That is the person must have sufficient amount of funds for covering the cost of Hajj expense, leaving and entering Makkah and expense for his family till he returns.

Therefore Hajj is not mandatory (fard / فرض) for a disbeliever, a child, a physically disabled person (i.e blind, handicap), an old person (who cannot sit on a ride by himself) and a poor person (who cannot bear all those mentioned expenses).

Conditions that make Hajj Mandatory to perform without delay (شروط وجوب الادآء)

If these conditions are found that the Hajj will be mandatory the same year:

  1. The way to Hajj is peaceful (there is no warzone in the way, no turmoil and etc that are opposed to peace).
  2. For a woman, She must have her husband or an unmarriageable kin (mahram / محرم) with her.
  3. For a woman, she must not be in her counting days (iddat / عدة).

Conditions required for Validity of Hajj

In order for one’s hajj to be valid. One must meet the following conditions:

  1. Islam (the person must be muslim).
  2. Ihram (special covering for pilgrim also includes its restrictions).
  3. The time of Hajj (That is the actions of Hajj can only be performed during thedays of Hajj only. For example: (A) staying in arafah cannot be done before the zawal (midday) of 9th zil hijjah and cannot be done after the done after the morning of 10th zil hijjah. (B) Tawaful Ziyarat cannot be done before the 10th.
  4. the actions of Hajj must be done in their respective places. i.e for tawaf one must be in Masjid Al Haram, for staying one must be in Arafah and Muzdalifah, for rami (pelting) one must be in Mina and for sacrifice one must be in Haram.
  5. Tamiz (Since Tamiz is something default in sane adults this is normally applicable for sane na baligh / non mature children that is they are able to distinguish right from wrong).
  6. Sanity (hence those children who don’t have ability to classify right from wrong and insane people can perform those actions which do not require any intention i.e staying. But those actions which require intention such as intention, ihram, tawaf these actions must be done by someone else on their behalf).
  7. To complete all the fard actions of the Hajj.
  8. Intercourse must be avoided after ihram and before wuqoof.
  9. The year Ihram was tied, the same year Hajj must be done.

Pillars (Faraid) of Hajj

There are a few faraid of Hajj. If even one of them is left then Hajj will not be performed. No matter if it is left by purpose or by mistake.

  1. Ihram (to put on the ihram/it is a condition).
  2. To intend for Hajj
  3. To stay in Arafah (to stay in Arafah any time after the sunset of 9th zil hijjah and before the true dawn of 10th zil hijjah)
  4. Tawaf uz Ziyarah (out of 7 rounds of it, 4 are pillars).
  5. Time (Ever Fard must be performed in its respective time: i.e staying of Arafah must be done after the midday of 9th zil hijjah and be before the true dawn of 10th zil hijjah and the time for Tawaf uz Ziyarah is afterwards).
  6. Place (i.e for the staying of Arafah, one can stay anywhere in Arafah except “Batan ul Arafah and the place for Tawaf is Haram Sharif. If Tawaf of Ka’ba is done from outside of the masjid then it is not considerable.
  7. Tartib (order i.e to tie the ihram first, then wuquf ul arafah, then tawafe ziyarat.

The Compulsory acts of Hajj (Waajibat)

The following actions of the Hajj are compulsory acts (Wajibat). If even one is left then the hajj will be deficient. And to eliminate that deficiency one must give an animal sacrifice.

  1. To the tie Ihram in meeqat or before entering meeqat area.
  2. To do saee between safa and marwa.
  3. To began the saee from the safa (If began from marwa than first round will not be counted).
  4. If there is no excuse then one must do saee on foot.
  5. Saee must be done after tawaf (at least after four rounds of tawaf).
  6. To stay in arafah till the sunset.
  7. To stay in Muzdalifah.
  8. To offer maghreb and isha in muzdalifa during the time of isha.
  9. On the 10th of zil hijjah, to only do pelting (rami) on Jamratul Uqbah.  Also on the 11th       and 12th zil hijjah to do pelting (rami) on all three Jamrah.
  10. To do Rami of Jamrat ul Uqbah on the first day, before shaving the head.
  11. To do the rami of (required days) on their same respective day.
  12. To shave or trim the hair.
  13. To shave (Halq) or trim the hair (taqsir).
  14. Those who have done Hajj ul Qiran or Tamattu’ must sacrifice animal.
  15. This sacrifice must be in Haram Sharif and within the days of sacrifice.
  16. The most of the Tawafe Ziyarat should be done in the days of sacrifice.
  17. Tawaf must be from conducted outside Hatim.
  18. To start the Tawaf from the right side. That is Ka’ba Sharif must be on the left side of the  tawaf performer.
  19. If there is no disability (excuse) then one must do tawaf on foot.
  20. To do Tawaf while one is in state of ablution (wuzu).
  21. During the Tawaf one’s nudity must be covered. That is if 1/4th or more of the limb is     exposed then sacrifice will be required.
  22. To offer two Rak’ats of Salah after the Tawaf (if not offered then sacrifice will not be
                    required/wajib).
  23. To Keep a sequence in Pelting (Rami), Sacrifice (Qurbani), Shaving (Halq) and Circumambulate (Tawaf) That means one must do Peltin (Rami) first, then Sacrifice (Qurbani), Then Shave (Halq), Then Circumambulate (perform Tawaf).
  24. To perform Tawaf ul Wida’ (circumambulation for farewell). This is the Tawaf for those who have come from outside the meeqat. If a woman is in the state of menses and during the same time it is her departure, then Tawaf ul wida is not upon her.
  25. To avoid sexual intercourse until head is shaved after staying in arafah’ and tawaf ul ziyarat is performed.
  26. To avoid the prohibitions of ihram. i.e to avoid wearing stitched cloth and to avoid covering the head.

If a wajib is left then Dam (sacrifice) will be compulsory. No matter if the wajib is left on purpose or by mistake, or by forgetfulness, or done without knowledge. However some wajibat (compulsory things) are exception to this rule. i.e skipping of two rakats after tawaf, to not shave the head due to some excuse (uzr) and to not delay salah of maghreb till isha in muzdalifah.

The Sunan acts of Hajj

  1. To perform Tawaf ul Qudum (first tawaf for those who have come from outside of meeqat, upon their arrival in Makkah Sharif). This is Sunnah for the person who is performing Hajj ul Ifrad and Hajjul Qiran. This is not for the person who is performing Hajj ul Tammattu’.
  2. To began the tawaf from Al hajr Al aswad (The Black Stone).
  3. To do Raml (to walk like jogging) in Tawaf ul Qudum (First Tawaf) and Tawaf ul Fard (obligatory tawaf).
  4. For man, to run between the two green stones (ميلين اخضرين) during saee (fast walking) of safa and marwa
  5. To leave Makkah after the fajr of 8th Zil Hijjah, So that 5 Salahs can be established in Mina.
  6. To spend the night of 9th Zil Hijjah in Mina.
  7. To depart from Mina to Arafat after the sunrize.
  8. To perform ghusl for wuquf ul arafah (staying in arafaat)
  9. To stay in Muzdalifah at night after coming from arafaat.
  10. To leave for Mina from Muzdalifah before the sunrize.
  11. To spend the night for 11th and 12th Zil Hijjah in Mina. And if one wants to spend 13th Zil Hijjah in Mina as well then he must spend the night of 13th in Mina as well (The Night that comes after the day of 12th).

The Restrictions of Ihram

(what you can and cannot do in the state of Ihram)

The following actions are Haram in the state of Ihram:

  1. To have intercourse with woman.
  2. To kiss, touch and the woman with intimacy and to look at her private part with intimacy.
  3. To speak any obscene word or talk
  4. To intend to perform sin
  5. To argue someone about worldly affairs
  6. To Hunt animals (of wild life)
  7. or to point towards the game or to assist the hunter in some way.
  8. To break the eggs of hunting
  9. To rip the feathers (of bird/animal), to break the arm or feet, to milk the animal, to cook its meat or egg, to bake it, sell it, buy it and to eat it.
  10. To trim one’s own or other person’s nail(s). Also to get some other person to trim your nails.
  11. To not separate any hair of the body (from head to toe)
  12. To cover head or face through a cloth (or to keep a watch on the head/or likewise covering face from the pillow).
  13. To Tie Amamah (Turban).
  14. To put a Burqa on.
  15. To wear gloves.
  16. To wear socks (khuf) that hides the mid-feet, (where the front part is located). If there are no shoes, then one can cut/trim the socks so the front part of the feet is not hidden).
  17. To wear stitched clothes.
  18. To apply fragrance in the body, hair or clothes
  19. To wear any type of clothes with fragrance (i.e Safflower Caesar/Kusm Kaisar), given the fragrance is still remaining in the clothes. i.e Saffron and Amber.
  20. To ties such a fragrance in the scarf (urdu: dupatta), while it is giving out fragrance
  21. To consume musk, saffron and amber, spice, cloves, cardamom, cinnamon, ginger and etc.
  22. To wash the head or beard with Hibiscus or any fragrance giving thing or anything through which if the head is washed then the nits of the head will die.
  23. To apply the dye color of henna (included iranian henna).
  24. To apply glue/gel for putting hair together.
  25. To apply olive or sesame oil on hair on body (though they don’t have any fragrance.
  26. To shave someone’s head, though that person is not in Ihram.
  27. To kill the nits, or to throw them away, or to point out to anyone to kill these nits, or to put the nits in the suٹn (to kill them) or to try to kill the nits any possible way.

The Clearances of Ihram
(The Things you are allowed to do in the state of Ihram)

  1. While laying down, besides the face or head one can put a stitched cloth on his body.
  2. To tie the apron (urdu: tahband) of a kurta (dress) or pajama.
  3. To insert the sides of the cloth into the apron (urdu: tahband)
  4. To tie a bag, bandage or weapon
  5. To perform ghusl (ritual bath) without getting rid of the dust/dirt off the body.
  6. To wash the clothes, given the intention or purpose is not to kill the nits.
  7. To use miswak (do miswak)
  8. Sit under the shade of something.
  9. To use umbrella
  10. To put a ring on
  11. To apply the kohl (surma) which is without fragrance
  12. To remove the broken nail
  13. To burst the blisters
  14. To scratch the head or body in such a way that the hair does not break
  15. If fragrance was applied before entering the state of ihram, then it is permissible that it stays.
  16. To slaughter the domesticated animal i.e camel, cow, goat, chicken etc.
  17. To cook and eat the domesticated animals (after slaughtering them) or to milk them or break or bake its eggs.
  18. To hunt the fish for eating.
  19. To rip the grass, or chop the tree(s) which are outside Haram area.
  20. To kill eagle, crow, rat, cricket, lizard, snake, scorpion, bed bugs, mosquito, flea, fly and etc (though inside Haram area).
  21. Besides the face or head, It is permissible to apply bandage on the body.
  22. To put pillow below the head or cheeks.
  23. To keep the hand on the hand or cheeks.
  24. To hide the ear through a cloth.
  25. The beard which is below the chin, to keep a cloth on it.
  26. To carry a tray or a bag on the head.
  27. To consume such a food which has saffron etc (though it is giving fragrance). And if saffron is not giving smell while it is in uncooked food, it is also allowed to consume it.
  28. Ghee (clarified butter), fat, bitter oil, coconut oil, or almond oil (which is not settled) is allowed to be applied to body or hair.
  29. To wear such clothes which were given fragrance, but on the condition that they lost their smell. But (Safflower Caesar/Kusm Kaisar) is not allowed for men by default.
  30. To fight for the sake of religion (Islam)/Rather according to the need it can be fard or wajib.
  31. To wear shoes which are not hiding the front part of the feet.
  32. To tie a taweez in unstitched cloth and to wear it in the neck.
  33. To look in the mirror.
  34. To touch or tie in the scarf such an item, in which currently there is no fragrance i.e sandal or incense.
  35. To have Nikkah done in the state of Ihram.

Types of Haj

There are 3 different types of Haj:

  1. Hajj-e-Ifrad (Only Haj, no Umrah) in which Ihram is a condition. Staying in Arafah and Tawaf-e-Ziyarat are the obligations in it, staying in Muzdalifa, Throwing the stones, shaving or cutting the hair, Sa’ii between Safa and Marwa and Tawaf-e-Wida (Last tawaf before leaving) are all Compulsory. Doing Tawaf before going to Arafah is Sunnah. Sacrifice (Qurbani) is recommended.
  2. Hajj-e-Qiran (Hajj and Umrah both done with one Ihram) in which Ihram is a condition. Tawaf-e-Umrah, staying in Arafah and Tawaf-e-Ziyarat are the obligations in it. Staying in Muzdalifa, throwing the stones, shaving or cutting the hair, Sa’ii between Safa and Marwa after the Tawaf for Umrah, and Saii after Tawaf-e-Ziyarat, Tawaf-e-Wida (Last tawaf before leaving), sacrifice, are all Compulsory. Doing Tawaf before going to Arafah Raml (Jogging in 1st 3 rounds of circulations) and Iztibaa (putting the ihram from under the right side arm pit and keeping the right shoulder open,while left shoulder covered) are all Sunnah.
  3. Hajj-e-Tamatto (Hajj and Umrah are done with different Ihram)in which Ihram of Umrah and Ihram of Hajj are conditions. Tawaf-e-Umrah,staying in Arafah and Tawaf-e-Ziyarat are the obligations in it. Staying in Muzdalifa, throwing the stones, shaving or cutting the hair, Sa’ii between Safa and Marwa after the Tawaf for Umrah, and Saii after Tawaf-e-Ziyarat, Tawaf-e-Wida (Last tawaf before leaving) and sacrifice, are all Compulsory. Doing Tawaf before going to Arafah Raml and Iztibaa are all Sunnah.

What is Umrah?

The Umrah is a voluntary form of ibadat, and can be performed any time during the year. To be in the state of ihram (until all the requirements of umrah are done- i.e till the head is shaved or get hair cut after finishing all the obligations) is the condition for umrah. To do tawaf of Ka’ba is the rukn (Pillar) of the Umrah. To do Ramal (walk fast) and to open one arm is sunnah during tawaf of Ka’bah. And to do Saee’ (walk fast) between safa and marwah is wajib. Lastly after everything (from the requirements of Umrah) to shave the head or cut the hair (Tahleeq or Taqseer) is also wajib.