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The legal definition of fasting is to abstain from food, drink, and sexual intercourse during daylight hours with an intention. Fasting can be categorized according to the level of obligation. Obligatory fasts would be those of Ramadan, mandatory fasts (واجب) are those that were promised in a vow or makeups for broken nafl fasts, sunnah fasts would be like those made on Ashura, recommended fasts (مندوب) would be like those made on the middle three days of each month, supererogatory fasts (نفل) would be like those made during any time of the year that is not sunnah or recommended, and prohibited fasts (مكروه) would be like those made on Eid. It is obligatory (فرض) upon every sane adult Muslim, but sick people and travelers are excused. There is no fasting for women in menses or postnatal bleeding for the duration of the period, but they must be made up afterward. If one is physically unable to fast, he/she can pay for the meal of a needy person for each fast (فدية). The book of fasting covers its types, things that invalidate and do not invalidate the fast, things that are disliked, and things that are not disliked. This book also covers the legal aspects of moon-sighting and retreat in the mosque (اعتكاف).
Defination: To obstain during the day (true dawn to sunset) from intentionally or mistakenly entering some thing in the stomach or brain and from sexual satisfaction, with the intention of fasting.
WHAT DOESN’T NULLIFY THE FAST:
1. Eating, drinking, or having sexual intercourse forgetfully.
2. Having orgasm (dropping semen) because of looking or thinking.
3. Applying oil to the body or head.
4. Applying eyeliner (Surma) to the eyes even if the taste appears in the throat.
5. Cupping and blood withdrawal.
7. Smoke, dust, fly or the taste of medicine entering the throat unintentionally.
8. Awekening in Janaba (magor impurity)
9. Mucus entering the nasal passage and sniffed back into the throat and swallowed on purpose.
10. Intentionally vomiting less than a mouthful does not break the fast, even if it goes back down the throat,
11. If one inadvertantly vomits and unintentionally goes back down the throat does not break fast.
12. Swallowing food from the teeth if less than size of chickpea.
13. Chewing something like sesame that comes from outside the mouth until it melts does not break the fast if the taste does not appear in the throat.
WHAT NULLIFIES THE FAST REQUIRING EMPIATION (Kaffarah)
2. Eating or drinking.
3. Eating raw meat, fat or grease of meat.
4. Swallow a seed of wheat, seasame or the like.
5. Eating a small amount of salt.
6. Swallowing the saliva of spouse or loved ones.
7. If one intentionally eats after doing something that he thought broke the fast, but in fact didn’t.
WHAT NULLIFIES FAST WITHOUT EXPIATION (Kaffarah)
1. Eating raw rice, flour or dough.
2. Eating mouthful of salt.
3. Eating Soil that has no benefit.
4. Eating cotton or paper
5. Eating a raw walnut
6. Swallowing a pebble, metal, soil or stone.
7.Taking an enema
8. Pouring drops of medicine through the nostrils.
9. The fourceful pouring something down the throat.
10. To drip water or oil into the ears.
11. Applying medicine to a wound of the stomach or head which then penetrates a cavity and reaches
inside the stomach or brain.
12. If water swallowed accidentaly.
13. Accidentaly breaking the fast from gargling.
14. If forced to breakfast even through intercource, male or female.
15. If a married woman or slave breaks fast out of fear of falling ill because of duties she performs.
16. Eating on purpose after eating forgetfully
17. If a person becomes traveller after starting the day as a resident and thereafter breaks the fast.
18. If the person begins the day as a traveller and then intends residence and thereafter breaks his fast.
19 Eating suhur ar having intersousr doubting whether Fajr has entered, and it has.
20. If the intention to fast was made in the day and then the person eats.
21. Eating Futoor thinking sunset, but did not.
22. Orgasm (inzaal) from intercourse with a corpse or beast, or by rubbing, kissing, touching, or masturbation.
23. Breaking any fast other than fast of Ramadan (Ada)
24. An woman got intercoursed while sleeping, or dripped anything into her vagina.
25. Inserting a finger which is wet with water or oil into the anusor inner part of vagina.
26. Inserting a piece of cotton into the anus or inside the vagina to the extant it disappears.
27. Intentionally inhaling smoke.
28. Vomiting intentionally mouthful
29. Intentionally returning a mouthful of vomit while he remembers he is fasting.
30. Eating that is stuck between his teeth the size of a chickpea.
DAYS WHEN FASTING IS FORBIDDEN:
(1)Day of Eid al Fitr (Eid of Ramadan)
(2,3,4,5) During Eid al ADHa 10, 11, 12 and 13 of month of Dhul Hijjah